Sunday, October 19, 2014

Old German Songbooks, No. 17: Some More Songbooks For Schools (1879-1882)

  • W. Jütting & F. Billig, Liederbuch für die Mittel- und Oberklassen städtischer Volksschulen (auch
    gehobener Landschulen) und die unteren Klassen höherer Lehranstalten, Carl Meyer (Gustav Prior), Hannover, 1879
    Download
    pdf (27,8 MB)
  • A. Wille, Liederbuch für deutsche Schulen. Sammlung von 200 ein-, zwei- und dreistimmigen Liedern. Drei Hefte, 3. Auflage, Verlag der Buchhandlung des Pestalozzi-Vereins, Eberswalde 1882
    Download
    pdf (30,6 MB)
  • Liederbuch für preußische Volksschulen. Zusammengestellt von einem praktischen Schulmanne, 5. Auflage, G. Wilh. Leipner, Leipzig, 1882
    Download
    pdf (10 MB)
  • C. H. Voigt, Volksweisen. Für die reifere Jugend, M. Bahn (früher C. Trautwein), Berlin, 1879/80
    1. Heft, 9. Auflage, 1880
    2. Heft, 3. Auflage, 1879
    Download pdf (23,4 MB)
  • C. Landwehr, Jugendklänge. Sammlung von Liedern und Chorälen für höhere Töchterschulen. Nach unterrichtlichen Grundsätzen in vier Stufen geordnet. IV. Stufe, 2. verb. u. verm. Aufl., Siegismund & Volkening, Leipzig, 1877 [pp. 97-176]
    Download
    pdf (20,6 MB)
  • Wilhelm Tschirch, Vierundfünfzig zwei- und dreistimmige Lieder und Gesänge für obere Knabenklassen von Volks- und bürgerschulen und für mittlere Klassen von Gymnasien und Realschulen, 4. Aufl., Siegismund & Volkening, Leipzig, 1878
    Download pdf (9,4 MB)
  • W. Volckmar & G. Zanger, Deutsche Lieder für Schule, Haus und Leben, 3 Hefte, Ed. Peter, Leipzig, 1880
    Download
    pdf (38,8 MB)
Recently I ordered from an antiquarian bookshop a songbook for schools published in 1879. When I received it I was surprised to see that it was bound together with five more similar song collections from the same time period. I have scanned them all and added here one more songbook "für Schule, Haus und Leben" (also 1880) acquired separately. 

These are the typical song collections compiled and produced for the use in schools, often sloppily printed and then sold cheaply so the pupils and the schools could afford them. This was a heavily contested but also also very promising market. If a book prevailed and was then even reprinted regularly the successful editor could expect a most welcome additional income. 

What we find in these books is the standard repertoire of this era that was recycled again and again by numerous editors and publishers. Notable is once again the extreme obsession with patriotic songs. I still can't get over Hoffmann v. Fallersleben's truly awful song about Kaiser Wilhelm:
Wer ist der greise Siegesheld, der uns zu Schutz und Wehr
für's Vaterland zog in das Feld mit Deutschland's ganzem Heer?
[...]
Du, edles Deutschland, freue dich,
Dein König hoch und ritterlich,
Dein Wilhelm, dein Wilhelm, dein Kaiser Wilhelm ist's. 
And I always thought it was Field Marshal von Moltke who had won the war. But nonetheless (nearly) everybody loved the old Kaiser, the former Kartätschenprinz (i. e. "Prince of Grapeshot", as he used to be called back in 1848, during the revolution). Of course the editors couldn't avoid including all the other classics of this particular genre like "Hurrah Germania", "Die Wacht am Rhein (Es braust ein Ruf wie Donnerhall)", "Heil Dir Im Siegerkranz" or "Deutsches Weihelied":
Alles schweige!
Jeder neige ernsten Tönen nun sein Ohr!
[...]
Deutschlands Söhne, laut ertöne euer Vaterlandsgesang!
Dem Beglücker seiner Staaten,
Dem Vollender großer Thaten
Töne unser Rundgesang!
Once again I can't help but feel deeply sorry for the poor children who were treated to this excessive amount of patriotic propaganda. But we should not forget that these kind of songbooks for the use in schools were not compiled with the intention that the pupils have fun singing. They were first and foremost regarded as a helpful tool for teaching them to be loyal, patriotic subjects (not citizens!). 

Besides that these books also include religious pieces of all kinds, "Volkslieder" and "volkstümliche Lieder" about Heimat, nature, Abschied, wandern, the yearly seasons and even occasionally a real good song like for example a German version of Thomas Moore's "The Last Rose of Summer" or Silcher's famous "Loreley", both immensely popular at that time. 

Monday, October 13, 2014

Links - The London Stage 1660-1800, Now Available Online

The best news recently was that The London Stage is now available online. This is a tremendous and immensely helpful resource compiled from contemporary sources like newspaper advertisements, playbills and more. What was performed in theatres and other places of entertainment in London during that era? 
  • The London Stage 1660 - 1800. A Calendar Of Plays, Entertainments & Afterpieces Together With Casts, Box-Receipts And Contemporary Comment, 5 Pts. in 11 Vols, ed. by William van Lennep et al., Carbondale 1960-68
I occasionally go to the university library in Köln where they have a complete set. The books looked as if they hadn't been used for the last 10 years. But I needed them regularly because this work is also important for research into British music history during that period. To be true these were the kind of books I really enjoy. I could spend hours with them. In fact I did because it answered many questions I had, for example: when did Kitty Clive first perform "Ellen a Roon" in London? On March 8, 1742, after the third act of the comedy The Man Of Mode at the theatre in Drury Lane (London Stage 3.2, p. 974). Or: When was Burk Thumoth's first documented performance? On May 13, 1730, at the age of 13, at Goodman's Field (London Stage 3.1, p. 60). 

Thankfully these books are now available online at the Hathi Trust Digital Library as searchable and downloadable pdfs with a CC BY-NC license: 
Of course it is now also possible to link directly to the relevant pages. Here are for example the links to Kitty Clive in Vol. 3.2, p. 974 and Burk Thumoth in Vol. 3.1, p. 60. It is even allowed to embed these books. I hope it works here:

Many thanks to theatre historian Mattie Burkert for her efforts to make this possible:

Sunday, October 12, 2014

James Oswald's Caledonian Pocket Companion (1745-1769) - What Is Available Online?

One of the most important and influential Scottish tune collections of the 18th century was James Oswald's Caledonian Pocket Companion, published in 12 volumes since circa 1745. Oswald (1710 - 1769), the "most prolific and successful composer of 18th-century Scotland", but also a publisher, music teacher, arranger, editor, cellist and not at least a very astute businessman, worked at first in Dunfermline and Edinburgh and then moved to London in 1741. Six years later he set up his own music shop and publishing house and in 1761 he even became chamber composer to King George III. (quote from Johnson/Melvill, James Oswald, in: New Grove, 2nd ed., Vol. 18, pp. 790-1, see also Kidson, British Music Publishers, pp. 84-87).

The Caledonian Pocket Companion surely was the most popular of Oswald's numerous publications. These were handy and relatively inexpensive booklets with only the melody line, "noteworthy for [their] somewhat spartan appearance [...], to be available to the average punter rather than the gentleman amateur [...] an exercise in musical democracy" (Purser 1997, p. 327). In fact even the less affluent music fans could afford a tune collection like this one. The real problem with this work is that Oswald never gave the sources of the tunes. So in many cases we don't know if he had written them himself, if he had collected them somewhere or borrowed from another publication. 

But nonetheless this was a historically important and influential repository of tunes known at that time. It was regularly reprinted and remained in use even long after Oswald's death. Robert Burns owned a copy (see Purser 1997, p. 327) and editors of subsequent collections of Scottish songs used it as a source, for example James Johnson, Joseph Ritson and James Hogg (see McAulay, pp. 57, 68, 162). I have encountered Oswald's collection nearly every time I set out to research the history of particular tunes. In case of "Farewell to Tarwathie" I found altogether five different tune variants (see Ch. 1 of this work, at JustAnotherTune.com). Most recently I was surprised to find out that he was also responsible for the earliest documented precursor of the tune used by Thomas Moore for "'Tis The last Rose of Summer" ("St. Martin's Church Yard", in Vol. 3, p. 25, according to SITM 1175, p. 223). 

Thanks to the digitization efforts of the National Library of Scotland and the University of Western Ontario this collection can easily be accessed at the Internet Archive. But there are different editions and composite volumes available and perhaps it is helpful to point out the most usable digitized versions. 

Most important is a book including what looks like the original versions of the first six volumes. The first two had been published not by Oswald himself but - before he started his own business - by John Simpson: 
Then there are some composite volumes including reprints of Vol. 1 & 2 published by Oswald himself. One is not particularly useful because it consists only of a couple of pages from different booklets: 
Much more helpful is an edition that includes not only the first six booklets - with an alphabetical index - but also Vols. 7 & 8: 
A composite volume of different editions of the first 8 volumes is unfortunately a little bit incomplete. Some pages of Vols. 2 & 4 are missing: 
We now have the first 8 Vols. of this collection. But for the remaining four one must resort to later new editions. One was by publishers Straight & Skillern but the copy available here is incomplete and includes only Vols. 8, 11, 12 
Later music publisher Robert Bremner brought out a new edition in two volumes, the first including the original booklets 1-6 and the second one with original numbers 7 - 12, but with new continuous pagination. The latter has also been digitized and can be found here: 
In fact all individual volumes of the Caledonian Pocket Companion are now available, the original editions of the first 8 and the last four as part of Bremner's later edition. 

Literature
  • David Johnson & Heather Melvill, James Oswald, in: The New Grove, 2nd ed., London 2001, Vol. 18, pp. 790-1 (the best short resumé of Oswald's life and work)
  • Frank Kidson, British Music Publishers, Printers And Engravers, London, Provincial, Scottish and Irish. From Queen Elizabeth's Reign to George The Fourth's, London 1900 (available at The Internet Archive)
  • Karen E. McAulay, Our Ancient National Airs. Scottish Song Collecting c. 1760 - 1888, PH. D. thesis, University of Glasgow, 2009 (online available at http://theses.gla.ac.uk/1242/; now also published by Ashgate with the title: Our Ancient National Airs: Scottish Song Collecting from the Enlightenment to the Romantic Era, Farnham 2013, see Google Books)
  • John Purser, 'The Wee Apollo': Burns and Oswald, in: Kenneth Simpson, Love and Liberty. Robert Burns: A Bicentenary Celebration, East Linton 1997, pp. 326-333
  • SITM = Aloys Fleischmann (ed.), Sources Of Irish Traditional Music, C. 1600 - 1855, 2 Vols., New York & London 1998

Notes:
  • The books digitized by the NLS are also available on their own site and can be used there. They are part of the Glen and Inglis Collections of Printed Music.
  • There is also a facsimile edition of Caledonian Pocket Companion on 2 CD Roms, published in 2006 & 2007 by Nick Parkes, with introduction and notes by John Purser (see the review of Vol. 1 at mustrad.org; the CDs are still available on John Purser's website). I haven't seen this one yet but it looks very promising and I have just ordered a copy.

Wednesday, October 8, 2014

Old German Songbooks, No. 16: Pflüger, Liederbuch für Schule und Leben (1850s); Hesse & Schönlein, Schulliederbuch (1890s); Meyer, Volks-Gesangbuch (1873)

Here are some more songbooks I have scanned. All are from the second half of the 19th century:
  • J. G. F. Pflüger, Liederbuch für Schule und Leben, 3 Bde., Friedrich Gutsch, Karlsruhe, 1857/8
    I. Heft, Kinderlieder, 1857
    II. Heft, Volkslieder, 2. Auflage, 1858
    III. Heft, Volksthümliche Lieder, 1858
    Download
    pdf (all 3 booklets bound together in 1 vol., 44 MB)
  • Friedrich Hesse & Adalbert Schönstein, Schulliederbuch. Sammlung auserlesener Lieder für Bürger-, Mittel-, höhere Töchter- und höhere Bürgerschulen, Heft II. Lieder für die Mittelklassen, 3. Auflage, Verlagsbuchhandlung von Paul Baumann, Dessau, 1894
    Download pdf (35 MB)
    Friedrich Hesse & Adalbert Schönstein, Schulliederbuch. Sammlung auserlesener Lieder für Bürger-, Mittel-, höhere Töchter- und höhere Bürgerschulen, Heft III. Lieder für die Oberklassen, 5. Auflage, Verlagsbuchhandlung von Paul Baumann, Dessau, 1899
    Download pdf (58 MB)
  • Wilhelm Meyer, Volks-Liederbuch. Auserlesene ältere und neuere Volkslieder und Nationalgesänge des In- und Auslandes mit ihren eigenthümlichen Sangweisen. Für den vierstimmigen Männerchor, Hahn, Hannover, 1873
    Download pdf (110 MB)
Both Pflüger and Hesse & Schönlein put together song collections for schools. Here we can see the development of the standard repertoire over 30 years. Pflüger already offered many songs that later became common in songbooks for schools and Hesse & Schönlein's is not that different from other publications from that time. In these books we find the usual amount of religious songs as well as many patriotic ditties and the popular "Volkslieder" by Silcher & co. Both books of course include the "Loreley", a song known to nearly everybody even today. Church and Vaterland, Heimat and nature were the most important topics and sometimes I feel really sorry for the poor children who had to sing something like:
Ich hab' mich ergeben mit Herz und mit Hand dir,
Land voll Lieb' und Leben, mein deutsches Vaterland [etc]
(Pflüger II, No. 23)
I am mostly interested in foreign, especially British, songs that were popular at that time in Germany. Therefore I was surprised to find another text for the tune of "Robin Adair/Eileen Aroon" that I hadn't been aware of (Pflüger III, No. 43; Hesse & Schönlein II, No. 73):
Fröhlicher Jugendsinn füllt uns die Brust,
Leicht durch das Leben hin folgt mir die Lust!
Wenn uns die Veilchen blühn
Wenn über frisches Grün wir durch den Frühling ziehn [...]
This is not exactly a masterpiece of poetry and was only very rarely included in songbooks, much less than the popular standard texts ("Treu und herzinniglich" & "Heut' muß geschieden sein"). Nonetheless it is a nice addition for my work about "Robin Adair" in Germany (on JustAnotherTune.com). Interestingly the tune was taken directly from Boieldieu's La Dame Blanche and not from Silcher's, Erk's or Täglichsbeck's well-known publications. Pflüger even credits Boieldieu as the composer. Someone with the name "Jung" is given as the author of the text in Pflüger's book and I have not able to find out who that was. Hesse & Schönlein - who don't mention Boieldieu but call it "Schottisches Volkslied" - claim it was "J. H. Jung-Stilling (1740-1817)" but that is clearly wrong and misleading. 

Meyer's Volks-Gesangbuch was not intended for schools but includes 4-part arrangements for Männergesangvereine. Interestingly he claims in his preface that most "Volkslieder" are not suitable for school children. That was a quite uncommon opinion at that time. He prefers male choirs as "die Stätte seiner Pflege". But this is a very interesting collection. Meyer included many adaptations of foreign songs from all kinds of countries, particularly from Britain. It seems he especially liked Burns and Moore and we can find here many of their songs. 

This book reflects the German fascination with foreign "Volkslieder" and amusingly he somewhat pats himself and his compatriots on the back for this interest in other people's songs:
"Es kann dem Deutschen nur zur Ehre gereichen, dass er gern sich in das innerste Leben anderer Völker vertieft und ihre Lieder mit Hingabe singt" (p. V).
In fact it is one of the best song collections from that era and the editor clearly tried to avoid much of the standard repertoire. But even he couldn't leave out some of the most popular German classics like the "Loreley" and "Der Mai ist gekommen".

Wednesday, September 3, 2014

"Mein Herz ist im Hochland" - New Musical Settings By German Composers 1836-1842 (Burns in Germany)

Among the most popular songs in Germany during the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th century was "Mein Herz ist im Hochland". This was an adaptation of Robert Burns' "My Heart's In The Highlands" with - numerous - different melodies. For some reason it was never published here with the original tune (see Scots Musical Museum, Vol. 3, 1790, No. 259, p. 268, available at the Internet Archive).

But we must distinguish here between two lines of tradition. On one hand the song was offered as a "Volkslied", usually with Ferdinand Freiligrath's translation. Friedrich Silcher was the first to publish it in a collection of "Folksongs" in 1837. Others like Ludwig Erk would follow his lead (see my texts about Silcher's and Erk's versions in this blog). All in all at least six different tunes - some old, some new - were used for this song and it appeared in numerous collections. 

On the other hand a great number of German composers took one of the available translations - most popular were those by Freiligrath, Philipp Kaufmann or Wilhelm Gerhard (see The Earliest German Translations…, in this blog) - and wrote a new tune. I have counted more than 60 of these publications between 1836 and 1899. At the moment I am trying to put together a bibliography of these works. Here is the first part with all the new settings published between 1836 and 1842. This information is extracted from Hofmeister XIX, a database of Hofmeisters Monatsberichte which is invaluable for research into 19th century German music and Ernst Fleischhack's Freiligrath's Gedichte in Lied und Ton (Bielefeld 1990, here pp. 68-73). 
  • Friedrich W. Jähns, Schottische Lieder und Gesänge, mit Begleitung des Piano-Forte. Gedichtet von Robert Burns, übersetzt von Philipp Kaufmann, Op. 21, Heft II. 4 Gesänge für Bass, Bariton od. Alt, Berlin, Crantz [1836], No. 1, pp. 2/3 (at BStB-DS; see Hofmeister, Nov. 1836,p. 125)
  • Carl Wilhelm Greulich, Jäger-Lied für Tenor mit Begleitung des Piano-Forte und Horn ad lib. (Mein Herz ist im Hochland), Letzte Arbeit des Komponisten, Berlin, Westphal [1837] (see Hofmeister, August 1837, p. 106, no extant copy)
  • Wenzel J. Tomaschek, Drei Gesänge, componiert für eine Singstimme mit Pianoforte-Begleitung, Op. 92, Hamburg, Cranz [1839], No. 3: "Mein Herz ist im Hochland" (see Hofmeister Oktober & November 1839, p. 142; copies at ÖNB, Wien, MS16405-4°; SMI, Regensburg, xxx)
  • Heinrich Marschner, Lieder nach Robert Burns von F. Freiligrath für eine Sopran oder Tenorstimme mit Begleitung des Piano-Forte, Op. 103, Mainz, Schott [1839], No. 6, pp. 12-13 (online available at the Internet Archive; also at IMSLP, see Hofmeister, Dezember 1839, p. 154)
  • Friedrich Kücken, Drei Duette für Gesang mit Begleitung des Pianoforte, Op. 30, Berlin, Bechthold [1840], No. 2: "Mein Herz ist im Hochland" (see Hofmeister August 1840, p. 107 ; also in later edition: Sechs Berühmte Duette für zwei Singstimmen. Opus 15 und 30, Leipzig, Peters [1894], No. 5, pp. 23-30, pdf [bound together with Sechs Berühmte Duette für zwei Singstimmen. Opus 8 und 21, Leipzig, Peters, n. d.])

          Your browser does not support embedded midi
  • Robert Schumann, Myrthen. Liederkreis von Göthe, Rücker, Byron, Moore, Heine, Burns und Mosen, Op. 25, Leipzig, Kistner [1840], Heft 3, No. 1: "Hochländers Abschied" (see Hofmeister, Oktober 1840, p. 143; see a later edition, No. XIII, pp. 30-2, at the Internet Archive; more later editions of this collection are available at IMSLP
  • Carl Krebs, Mein Herz ist im Hochland. Lied für eine Singstimme mit obligater Pianoforte-Begleitung, Op. 73, Für Sopran od. Tenor, 1/3 Thlr., Schuberth & Comp, Hamburg u. Leipzig, T. Trautwein, Berlin, T. Haslinger, Wien, n. d. [1840] (pdf; see Hofmeister, Dezember 1840, p. 172, see also this text in my blog)
  • Otto Bähr, 6 Lieder für Mezzo-Sopran, Alt oder Bariton mit Begleitung des Pianoforte, Leipzig, Breitkopf & Härtel [1841], No. 5: "Mein Herz ist im Hochland" (see Hofmeister, November 1841, p. 172)
  • Julius Stern, Zwei Gesänge, No. 2: "Mein Herz ist im Hochland", in: Sammlung von Musik-Stücken aus alter und neuer Zeit als Zulage zur neuen Zeitschrift für Musik, 13. Heft, Juni 1841, pp.10-11, available at Hathi Trust (also in Julius Stern, 6 Gedichte von Reinick, Eichendorff, Burns, Chamisso, für eine Singstimme mit Begleitung des Pianoforte, Op. 8, Magdeburg, Heinrichshofen [1841], No. 4: "Mein Herz ist im Hochland" (one extant copy in the library of Schumann-Haus, Zwickau, $Zwi17#4625,2-A4/D1 )

            Your browser does not support embedded midi
  • Leopold Lenz, Mein Herz ist im Hochland, nach dem Schottischen des Robert Burns, in: Musikbeilage zu August Lewald (ed.), Europa. Chronik der gebildeten Welt, 1841, 26 (see Catalog BStB München, 4 Mus.pr. 1796-1841, 26), also in: Leopold Lenz, 7 Lieder für 1 Singstimme mit Begleitung des Pianoforte, op. 29, Leipzig, Breitkopf & Härtel [1843], No. 3 (see Hofmeister, Februar 1843, p. 29, one extant copy at BStB, München, 2 Mus.pr. 10766
  • Henry Hugh Pearson, 6 Lieder von Robert Burns nach Freiligrath für eine Singstimme mit Begleitung des Pianoforte, Op. 7, Leipzig, Kistner [1842], No. 3: "Mein Herz ist im Hochland" (see Hofmeister, Juni 1842, p. 97 , one extant copy at Badische Landesbibliothek, Karlsruhe, DonMusDr 2260)
  • W. E. Scholz, 4 Lieder, Op. 30, 7tes Liederheft, Breslau, Cranz [1842], No. 4: "Des Schotten Abschied" (see Hofmeister, Juni 1842, p. 97; no extant copy?)
  • Alexander Fesca, Drei Lieder von Robert Burns in Musik gesetzt für eine sopran- oder Tenorstimme mit Begleitung des Pianoforte, op. 21, Braunschweig, Meyer [1842], No. 1: "Mein Herz ist im Hochland" (see Hofmeister, September 1842, p. 144 , one extant copy at Badische Landesbibliothek, Karlsruhe, DonMusDr 1035)
  • J. Sommer, 6 Gesänge für 4 Männerstimmen, Op. 3, Coblenz, Geswein [1842] (see Hofmeister, Oktober 1842, p. 160; no extant copy?)
This list shows nicely how the interest in Burns' songs grew at that time. The first one was Friedrich Wilhelm Jähns in 1836. He used Philipp Kaufmann's translation which was already available at that time even though his complete book would only be published in 1839. One more - Greulich - followed in 1837 but the great flood only started in 1839/40 with five new publications and then seven more in 1841/2. Interestingly some were dedicated exclusively to Burns' songs, like Jähns, Marschner, Pearson and Fesca. This demonstrates his newfound popularity in Germany. One should also take into account that there were some more collections of Burns' translated texts set to new music that didn't include this particular song (like Kufferath's 6 Lieder, 1841, see this text in this blog). 

"Mein Herz ist im Hochland" remained popular among composers for the rest of the century. Until 1849 there were at least 15 more relevant publications, among them works by Ferdinand Hiller, Niels Gade. Between 1850 and 1899 at least 33 new settings would follow. In fact for more 60 years this song never went out of fashion. 

Literature:
  • Ernst Fleischhack, Freiligraths Gedichte in Lied und Ton, Bielefeld 1990
  • Hofmeister XIX = Musikalisch-literarischer Monatsbericht neuer Musikalien, musikalischer Schriften und Abbildungen, Hofmeister, Leipzig 1829ff (online available at Österreichische Nationalbibliothek; searchable database: Hofmeister XIX (Royal Holloway, University Of London)
Note:
  • The code for the midi-player used here is c/o: The problem with midi - Note for webmasters (abcnotation.com). Many thanks!