Sunday, February 7, 2016

"Exotic" Airs in Germany - Dalberg's "Ueber die Musik der Indier" (1802)

I. 

In the previous article I have discussed the publication of national airs of the more exotic kind in France by both Rousseau in his Dictionnaire de Musique (1768) and by Laborde in his Essai sur la Musique (1780). The latter had offered - as part of this massive musicological treatise - the largest collection so far with more than 50 tunes. In fact it was at that time the best summary of what was known about foreign musical cultures. Germany - as usual - was a little behind the time in this respect. Johann Gottfried Herder published his groundbreaking anthology of Volkslieder in 1778/9 but this was a multicultural collection of only texts. Of course there were books by travellers, explorers and missionaries about foreign countries and cultures - most of them translated from French or English - and some of them even included notes about music as well as musical examples. 

Some influential pioneers became interested in this genre and made available at least a few assorted "exotic" tunes. Musicologist Johann Nicolaus Forkel for example reprinted the relevant parts as well as some musical examples from two popular travel reports - by Forster and Niebuhr - in the Musikalisch-Kritische Bibliothek (2, 1778, pp. 306-320). He also listed some of the already available literature from France and England in his Allgemeine Litteratur der Musik (1792, see pp. 32-3; pp. 135-6), a useful bibliography, even though in this respect very incomplete. The legendary Abbé Vogler apparently traveled as far as North Africa and brought some tunes back. He published two small collections in the 1790s, Polymelos ou Caractères de Musique de differentes Nations (1791) and Pieces de Clavecin faciles (1798). The latter included melodies from Africa and China. Vogler also performed these kind of tunes in his spectacular organ concerts (see: Polymelos - Abbé Vogler's Collections of National Airs). 

But only in 1802 - also the year the first collection of Scottish songs appeared in Germany: Haydn's Alt-Schottische Balladen und Lieder (available at the Internet Archive) - the first comprehensive anthology of "exotic" national airs was published as a part of Fritz von Dalberg's extended German edition of a 10 year old article about Indian music by the famous English orientalist Sir William Jones. Here the interested reader could find more than 50 Indian, Chinese, Arab and Persian tunes as well as a lot of additional information about oriental music: 
  • Ueber die Musik der Indier. Eine Abhandlung des William Jones. Aus dem Englischen übersetzt, mit erläuternden Anmerkungen und Zusätzen begleitet, von F. H. v. Dalberg. Nebst einer Sammlung indischer und anderer Volks-Gesänge und 30 Kupfern, Beyer und Maring, Erfurt, 1802 (available at BStB, München, 4 Mus.th.723 & at the Internet Archive; also at Universität Wien, Phaidra) [the part with the tunes was also published separately as 'Lieder der Indier und anderer orientalischen Völker', Beyer & Maring, Erfurt, 1802]
Johann Friedrich Hugo von Dalberg (1760-1812; see Embach & Godwin 1998, Embach & Gallé 2012; see also Wikipedia) was a very interesting character but is barely known today. He came from an old and distinguished family. His older brother was the last Kurfürst of Mainz. He himself became capitular in Worms, Speyer and Mainz, typical benefices in these circles. Dalberg studied law, was appointed Geheimrat and became an expert for education but otherwise avoided a career in politics or bureaucracy. Instead he turned his attention to the arts and made himself a name as a musicologist - among his works were for example Blicke eines Tonkünstlers in die Musik der Geister (1787, at UB Heidelberg) and Untersuchungen über den Ursprung der Harmonie (1800, at BStB) - , composer - mostly of songs (see Embach & Godwin, pp. 497-551; see his first collection, 1788, at UB Frankfurt) - , pianist, translator and writer. And not at least he was one of the first German orientalists.


At that time intellectuals in Germany were looking east. Herder had proclaimed in 1774 - in his anonymously published Auch eine Philosophie der Geschichte zur Bildung der Menschheit (p. 147) - the orient - "das Morgenland" - as the "cradle of humanity". Especially India became something like a "dreamland" for everybody who was searching for the sources and origins of Western culture. In fact it was more or less Herder who created what has been called the "mythical image" of India (see Willson 1964, pp. 49-71; also Frank 2009) and he had to rely on the available literature mostly from England and France, being it travel books, translations of Eastern literature or scholarly treatises. In fact German scholars were in this respect completely dependent on their English colleagues who of course were able to do original research. 

Dalberg knew Herder personally, he corresponded and traveled with him and as a faithful admirer felt inspired by his ideas (see Embach & Godwin, pp. 171-202, pp. 367-8; Kovar, pp. 44-5). In the preface he  referred to Asia as "die Wiege unseres Geschlechtes" where music must have been developed first: "the earliest musical knowledge, like the beginning and origin of all arts and sciences, should be searched for" there, especially in India (pp. III-IV). But to learn more about Indian music he had to go to London, at that time something like the multicultural capital of Europe. 

II. 

The '80s and '90s saw "the rapid acceleration of the cultural discovery of India" (Farrell, p. 10) and the key figure of this movement was Sir William Jones (1746-1794; see Cannon 1990; see Wikipedia), from 1783 until his early death judge in Calcutta. Already in 1784 the Royal Asiatick Society of Bengal was founded, with Sir William as the first President. He knew a lot of languages including Persian, Arabic, Hebrew, also learned Sanskrit and was busy as a linguist, translator and orientalist. With an astonishing productivity he produced numerous works. Jones also started and edited a periodical, the Asiatick Researches [see ESTC T149936], that was published in Calcutta since 1789 and regularly reprinted in London. The first volume was even translated into German (Riga 1795, at BStB). Here the interested reader could find most of the relevant original research. 

Also music from India became a topic of interest (see Bor 1988; Woodfield 1995, pp. 281-95, Farrell 1997, pp. 15-44; Zon 2007, pp. 48-59; Zon 2006; Cook 2007). Until the 1780s barely anything was known about it except some occasional notes by travellers and missionaries (see Woodfield 1995, pp. 276-8; Bor 1988, pp. 52-4). Laborde in his Essai (1780) didn't even mention Indian music. French voyager Pierre Sonnerat wasn't particularly impressed of what he had heard and the short remarks in his Voyage aux Indes Orientales et a la Chine (1782, pp. 101; also German ed., 1783, pp. 78-9) sound rather dismissive:
"La Musique est dans le même état d'imperfection que les autres arts. Les chant est sans harmonie [...] Les Indiens ont plusiers instruments [...] Celui qui fait le plus de bruit, est pour eux le plus beau & le plus harmonieux".
But already the first volume of the Asiatick Researches included an interesting article by Francis Fowke about musical instruments (pp. 295-99, here in the 5th ed., London 1806). Sir William Jones himself also found some time to deal with music and he worked on his article about the "Musical Modes of the Hindus" since 1784. But it only appeared in 1792 in the third volume of the Asiatick Researches (pp. 55-87).



This was only a rather short, theoretical and fragmentary treatise. He wrote mostly about the scales and added only one musical example. But it was the first serious discussion of the principles of Indian music based on first-hand knowledge and it became the starting-point for all further research (see Zon 2006, pp. 199-205). This article can be seen as only one of several attempts at a more thorough examination of oriental musical cultures. In 1779 the at that point most comprehensive work about Chinese music had appeared in Paris, the Mémoire Sur La Musique Des Chinois, Tant Anciens Que Modernes (at Google Books) by French Jesuit missionary Joseph-Maries Amiot. The Austrian officer and scholar Franz Joseph Sulzer added a chapter of more than 100 pages about Turkish Music to his Geschichte des transalpinischen Daciens (3 Vols., 1781-2, here Vol. 2, pp. 430-547) . Also Italian scholar Giambatista Toderini wrote about music in his Letteratura Turchesca (Vol. 1, 1787, pp. 222-52; German ed., 1790, Vol. 1, pp. 240-67). Jones' publication closed another gap and put India on the musical map. 

At that time a lively music scene in Calcutta had developed among the new English elite. They imported musical instruments and music from home (see Woodfield 2001). Some of them also started collecting and playing local music. One William Hamilton Bird - who was quite busy there as impresario, conductor and instrumentalist and about whom not much else is known (see Farrell, p. 32) - managed to compile, arrange and then publish the very first collection of Indian tunes - "taken down from actual performances [and] written down in staff notation for performance of Western instruments" (dto., p. 31) - in 1789: 
  • William Hamilton Bird, The Oriental Miscellany; Being A Collection Of The Most Favourite Airs of Hindoostan, Compiled And Adapted For The Harpsichord, &c., Cooper, Calcutta, 1789 (at the Internet Archive)
Here we can find 30 tunes, all arranged for piano, some with variations, as well as an Introduction with helpful explanations about the different genres: Rekhtahs, Teranas, Tuppahs and Raagnies. Especially with the latter he had some problems and noted that they "are so void of meaning, and any degree of regularity that it is impossible to bring them into any form for performance, by any singers but those of their country" ([pp. II-III]). Of course he had to adapt these tunes to Western musical style: "it has cost him great pains to bring them into any form as to TIME, which the music of Hindostan is extremely deficient in" ([p. I]. One should not ask for "authenticity" in a modern sense. The tunes appeared "in a form in which doubtless almost every trace of their original character has been lost, except perhaps their general melodic contour" (Woodfield 1995, p. 294).


But this didn't matter much. It was a start and a first step to a closer acquaintance with original Indian music and here we can see a kind of new "innocent openness to non-European culture" (see Cook, p. 17). Hamilton Bird was no ethnomusicologist. This was music for practical use, for musicians to perform and "for the entertainment of his friends, and the public" (Oriental Miscellany, [p. IV]). 

This collection also became available in London where it initiated a fashion for so-called "Hindostannie Airs". More publications by other editors would follow and Indian tunes became part of the popular music scene (see Zon 2007, p. 50). Some years later composer Edward Smith Biggs tried to make Hamilton Bird's melodies even more digestible. He published 18 of them in modern arrangements and with new poetry by popular writer Amelia Opie (Twelve Hindoo Airs, at at Gallica BnF; A Second Set of Hindoo Airs, at at Gallica BnF, [n. d., c. 1800]). Later, in 1818, even Thomas Moore would use one of Hamilton Bird's tunes for his popular hit "All That's Bright Must Fade" (Tuppah, p. 37; Popular National Airs I, 1818, [No. 3], pp. 9-15). 

III. 

Fritz von Dalberg, eager to find out more about Indian and Oriental music, made his pilgrimage to London. It is not clear when exactly he was there and if he traveled to England one or two times. But he may have spent some time there in 1793-4 and then in 1798 and he may have also met Joseph Haydn there (see Embach & Godwin, pp. 363-6). It is also not clear if he had become familiar with Jones' article already in Germany or if he read it first in London. Of course he couldn't meet Sir William himself there who was in India and died there much too early in 1794. But he made the acquaintance of Richard Johnson, "a well-known collector of Indian and Persian manuscripts and miniatures [...] who seems to have had a profound knowledge of Indian music" (Boer, p. 55). Mr. Johnson supported Dalberg with a stunning generosity and made it possible for him to produce more than only a translation of the "Musical Modes". For example he provided him with so-called ragmalas that he used to illustrate his book (pp. 85-100, and Appendix; see Embach & Godwin, p. 367).

Dalberg was not satisfied with Jones' sparse and fragmentary attempt and his more theoretical approach. He widened the perspective by also discussing the music of other oriental cultures - Arabia, Persia, China, the South Sea -, he added more relevant additional research and he also added many more musical examples, ending up with more than 50 tunes (see Kovar, pp. 42-3; Embach & Godwin, p. 369, pp. 372-4). 

For the part about India Dalberg included for example the remarks about musical instruments from Sonnerat's Voyage aux Indes Orientale et à la Chine (Vol. 1, 1782, pp. 178; here pp. 78-80), Fowke's above-mentioned description of the Vina from the first volume of the Asiatick Researches (here pp. 74-76) as well as his own "Zusätze und Bemerkungen" , a critical discussion of Jones' article (pp. 44-58). Most important was the great number of additional tunes. Mr. Johnson performed one song for him (No. II; see p. IV) and also helped him out with a copy of the Oriental Miscellany. Dalberg reprinted all 30 melodies (Nos. 3-32), but without the accompanying arrangements. He also quoted explanations of the different genres (pp. XI-XIV). Interestingly he was not completely convinced of the merits of this collection, questioned the tunes' authenticity and even doubted if Mr. Hamilton Bird had really the grasped the spirit and the subtleties of Indian music. This critical attitude is characteristic of his work (see Kovar, p. 49-50) and at times he sounded like an early ethnomusicologist. 

Also some of the more recent literature was consulted. Italian missionary and Sanskrit scholar Fra Paolino da San Bartolomeo had published his Viaggio alle Indie Orientali in 1796. Here Dalberg found some songs from Malabar including one with a tune (pp. 325-30, at NB, Oslo; German edition, 1798, pp. 365-70, at the Internet Archive) and this was also dutifully added as an addendum (pp. 80-84; No. 23, p. 29). English orientalist William Ouseley (1767-1842) had started a new ambitious periodical in 1797, the Oriental Collections. Three volumes appeared until 1800 and here the interested reader could find translations of poetry, scholarly articles and the more, even some music. One text with the title "Anecdotes on Indian Music" included four tunes (Vol. 1, 1797, pp. 70-9) and the same volume also offered a "Bengalee tune" (Misc. plate before p. 383; p. 385). These were more welcome additions to Dalberg's collection (Nos. 34-38; 42) .

Besides all these information about Indian music he turned his attention also to the music of other oriental cultures and added musical examples "um sie mit den indischen Gesängen vergleichen zu können" (p. XIV). Chinese music was of course not unknown in Germany. Du Halde's Description Géographique, Historique, Chronologique, Politique, et Physique De L'Empire de la Chine et de la Tartarie Chinoise (Paris, 1735) with half a dozen tunes had been translated into German (5 Vols., 1747-56, here Vol. 3, pp. 346-8). Johann Christian Hüttner had recently made available two songs from an English publication (see Der Neue Teutsche Merkur, 1796, 1. Band, pp. 47-63 & "Canzonetta Chinese" with translation, bef. p. 47, at UB Bielefeld; Journal des Luxus und der Moden 11, 1796, pp. 35-40, at UrMEL). Dalberg instead used Amiot's Mémoire Sur La Musique Des Chinois (see there pp. 184-5) and also reprinted the only musical example from this book (pp. 119-24; No. L, pp. 41-3). Some more Chinese tunes were taken from Ouseley's Oriental Collections (Vol. 1, 1797, p. 343; Vol. 2, 1798, pp. 148-9; see Nos. 28-41). 

He also added a chapter about Arab and Persian music based on the available literature (pp. 100-19; Nos. 43-48) and used as examples the one Persian tune from Chardin's Voyages en Perse, et Autres Lieux de L'Orient (1711, here Vol. 2, plate No. 26) and the six pieces from Thomas Shaw's Travels or Observations Relating to Several Parts of Barbary and the Levant (Oxford, 1738, p. 272, French ed., 1743, Vol. 1, p. 348; German ed., 1765, pp. 180-1). Apparently he wasn't aware of the music collected by Danish traveller Georg Höst in the 1760s and published on Germany in 1781 (plate No. 32, after p. 262). These tunes would have also been a worthwhile addition to his collection. 

Not at least he also expanded to the South Pacific to show examples of the music of the less cultivated - "savage" - people . 25 years ago one Joshua Steele had studied an instrument brought to England by Captain Cooke's expedition and wrote an article for the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society with a very curious title: Remarks on a larger System of Reed Pipes from the Isle of Amsterdam, with some Observations on the Nose Flute of Otaheite (in Vol. 65, 1775, Pt 6, pp. 72-8). This was in fact an interesting treatise and Steele added two tunes. But of course these were his own compositions (see Agnew 2008, p. 114). Nonetheless Dalberg included this article as well as one of the musical examples as a "Melodie aus den Südseeinseln" (pp. 125-131; No. LIII, p. 44). More original were two tunes collected in New Zealand borrowed from Forster's book about Captain Cook's voyage around the world (Nos. LI & LII, pp. 43-4; f. ex. in Forster 1784, Vol. 3, pp. 303-4). 

All in all this was an outstanding work and a major contribution to the literature about oriental cultures even though it did not include original research. He "reached India only in Richard Johnson's bureau in London" (Embach & Godwin, p. 375) and had to rely on secondary literature. But it was the best that could be achieved by a German scholar who himself had never been to any of these countries. It was also the largest collection of more or less authentic "exotic" tunes available in Germany. He offered much more than the Abbé Vogler in his two above-mentioned small publications. Outside of Germany only Laborde's Essai with its numerous musical examples came close. Dalberg clearly did his best to understand and appreciate this music not from a viewpoint of European superiority but as an expression of another culture of equal value. With his critical attitude and the multi-cultural approach he may really be seen as a kind of progenitor of later comparative musicologists (see Kovar, p. 47, pp. 49-51). 

On the other hand this anthology also looks like a musical answer to Herder's Volkslieder, notwithstanding the fact no songs from these cultures had appeared there. But Dalberg had adopted - as the faithful Herderian he was - the latter's idea that songs - "Volksgesänge" - reflected a people's "Charakter und Kunstgenius" (p. XV). His reference to the tunes' "simplicity" (see also Kovar, p. 48, pp. 51-2) could have been written by Herder himself: 
"Dem bloß ausübenden Tonkünstler, der allen Reiz der Musik nur in künstliche Wendungen und Schwürigkeiten setzt, werden diese einfachen Volksgesänge nur wenig sagen [...] schätzbar sind sie dem denkenden Musiker, der voll Liebe zum Einfach-Schönen Nationalgesänge und alte Volksmelodien aussucht, um sich mit ihrem Geist vetraut zu machen" (pp. XIV-XV). 
In fact he lifted these "exotic" tunes out of their original context and adapted them anew, on his own terms, for the genre known as national airs or Volkslieder. In another related work from the same year he expressed similar sentiments. Jones had also published a prose translation of the Gitagovinda: Or The Songs of Jayadeva - written in the 12th century - in the third volume of the Asiatick Researches (1792, pp. 185-207). Dalberg translated this "delightful pastoral idyll" - "eine liebliche Hirtenidille" (p. vii) - into German as Gita-govinda oder die Gesänge Jajadeva's eines altindischen Dichters, but cleaned it up even more (p. xv; see Embach & Gallé, p. 79). This legendary poet's songs were reinterpreted as "Volkslieder" and of course he couldn't avoid a reference to MacPherson's Ossian
"Die Gesänge dieses Dichters werden noch heutzutage gleich den Ossianischen Liedern von den rührendsten Melodien begleitet, am Ufer des Ganges gesungen" (p. vii) 
Dalberg's impressive work was mostly well-received by the critics. The reviewer in the Neue Teutsche Merkur (1, 1802, 6. Stück, pp. 130-4, here p. 131) called it "ein Werk [...] von äußerster Wichtigkeit" and recommended it to everybody interested in this topic, not only scholars and composers but also "jedem Liebhaber und Freunde der Geschichte der Menschheit überhaupt". But not everybody shared the enthusiasm for Indian and Oriental music, especially not the more conservative musicologists who were of course convinced of the superiority of European music (see also Kovar, pp. 47-8). 

The anonymous author of a long and detailed review in the AMZ (Vol. 5, 1803, pp. 281-294, pp. 297-303) lauded Dalberg for his efforts to make all this material available. But he rejected the "now so often repeated demand for simplicity", warned not to confuse "Dürftigkeit mit Simplicität und Unbehülflichkeit mit Originalität und sinnvoller Kühnheit" and even accused him of "not doing justice to our own music to promote the interest in Indian music" (pp. 288, 292, 297). Another reviewer in the Neue Allgemeine Deutsche Bibliothek (Vol. 86, 1804, pp. 49-60, here p. 50) complained that both Jones and Dalberg expressed on occasion an "almost too great fondness for Indian music" and that they therefore even suggested that it had "certain advantages over our own music". This of course was not acceptable.

IV.

Later Dalberg's collection was used by the promoters and admirers of the "Volkslied". Professor Thibaut (1772-1840; see Baumstark 1841) in Heidelberg, influential music theorist and conductor of an ambitious choir, mentioned it in his Ueber Reinheit der Tonkunst (2nd. ed., 1826, p. 91). He also had one later collection at hand, Horn's Indian Melodies (c.1813; see Verzeichnis, p. 43), which was partly based on the Oriental Miscellany. Thibaut arranged some Indian tunes for his choir and they can be found in his unpublished manuscript, Alte Nationalgesänge (1820-40, see RISM, for example No. 27, "Meine Sehnsucht sie endet nimmer", i. e. Dalberg No. 22). Hermann Kestner (1810-1890; see f. ex. Hahn 2003/4) from Hannover, private scholar and collector of songbooks and songs who had spent some time in Heidelberg and had sung with Thibaut, also arranged these tunes and added German texts. Unfortunately his work was never published but at least his manuscripts have survived (see f. ex. RISM, 1831). 

Two other members of the circle around Thibaut, Eduard Baumstark and Wilhelm von Zuccalmaglio, were responsible for the very first collection of international national airs published in Germany: Bardale. Sammlung auserlesener Volkslieder der verschiedenen Völker der Erde mit deutschem Texte und Begleitung des Pianoforte und der Guitarre (1829, available at the Internet Archive). They could use his resources and apparently were particularly fond of the copy of Ueber die Musik der Inder. Besides Chardin's Persian tune - here a recent new edition of the Voyages en Perse and Rousseau's Dictionnaire were given as the source - they included five melodies from Dalberg's book, all with easy accompanying arrangements and new German lyrics: three Indian, one Chinese and "Mizmoune", the "Moorish Aria" originally published in Shaw's Travels in 1734 (see p. 75: Nos. 16, 19, 29, 30, 37, i. e. Dalberg Nos. 13, 46, 32, 41, 42). At least one of them (No. 16) had already been part of the repertoire of Professor Thibaut's choir. 

Most interesting among these pieces is an Indian tune originally published by Ouseley in the Oriental Collections that was transformed here into a "Volkslied". In his article "Anecdotes of Indian Music" he reprinted a piece of music from a Persian translation of an Indian book  from the early 18th century (plate after p. 78, see p. 75): 

After an analysis of the scale used here and some theoretical explanations he then attempted a transcription in a quite unusual letter-code (pp. 76-8): 

Dalberg transformed it into then into a tune in modern musical notation and called it "Persisches Lied" (No. 42, p. 37): 

Baumstark and Zuccalmaglio added a new text "nach einer persischen Originaldichtung" - although they didn't tell which one they used - and turned it into a song: "Die Erwartung", to be sung "mit Sehnsucht" (No. 37, p. 67, note, p. 76): 

That way an old Indian tune ended up in German living-rooms. At this point it of course had barely anything to do with the original version but still was regarded as an "authentic" representation of a foreign culture. In the book it was placed between an "Hebrew" song and a "Hirtenlied. Alt-Englisch" and a singer performing these pieces one after another made a trip around half the world and several centuries back into the past. Nonetheless we can see here again - with this this rather naive appropriation of this and the other tunes - still a kind of "innocent openness" to foreign music. 

But on the other hand these songs had a rather self-serving ideological function. They represented - thanks to Rousseau and Herder - a dreamland, a more natural, much simpler world. India - or Persia, Old England etc - in the living-room was the antidote to the "nervous" modern music like Beethoven's and instead offered "pure, and often truly heavenly delights" (Vorrede, p. I). Let's hope it worked. But at least some reviewers didn't take this kindly - especially not the rude attack on Beethoven - and had serious problems finding these "delights" (see AMZ 31, 1829, pp. 733-742; BAMZ 7, 1830, pp. 283-5). 

A couple of years later a rival collection of international national airs appeared, Friedrich Silcher's Ausländische Volksmelodien (4 Vols, 1835-41). Silcher also used some exotic tunes but apparently he didn't know Dalberg's anthology. Instead he borrowed two Indian tunes from Thomas Moore's Popular National Airs, his major source. One of them was "All That's Bright Must Fade", as mentioned above also with a melody taken from Hamilton Bird's Oriental Miscellany ("Alle Lust hat Leid", in Vol. 3, 1839, No. 5, pp. 6-7). This tune was of course already available in Germany since 1802 in Dalberg's book (No. 28, p. 26), but up until then it hadn't made any deeper impression. Only with Silcher's German version of Moore's great hit it became established as well-known Indian song. This shows that the same tune could migrate to Germany on different routes and become popular only with its second attempt. 

But this doesn't mean that Dalberg's Ueber die Musik der Inder was forgotten. In fact it remained on the shelf and was regularly used by orientalists and musicologists. Peter von Bohlen referred to Dalberg in his Das alte Indien (1830, Vol. 2, p. 195) as did Gottfried Wilhelm Fink in Erste Wanderung der ältesten Tonkunst (1831, pp. 56-7, 253, 266). Of course it was mentioned in articles about Indian music in dictionaries, for example in the Encyclopädie der gesammten musikalischen Wissenschaften (1840, Vol. 3, p. 693) and the Universal-Lexikon der Tonkunst (1849, p. 452). Kiesewetter relied on Dalberg's work for his Musik der Araber (1842, see pp. xv, 18, 23, 68, 78) and Ambros mentioned him in the chapter about India in the Geschichte der Musik (Vol. 1, 1862, f. ex. p. 43). Carl Engel in England was still familiar with this book and included it in the bibliography of his important Introduction to the Study of National Music (1866, p. 397), François-Joseph Fétis in France reprinted one tune in the Histoire Générale de la Musique (Vol. 2, 1869, p. 272) and so did Danish composer A. P. Berggreen in his outstanding collection of non-European national airs, the Folke-Sange og Melodier Fra Lande Udenfor Europa (1772, here No. 121, p. 96, see p. 102) although in the latter case it was only Steele's self-made "Melodie aus den Südseeinseln" (Dalberg, No. 53, p. 44). 

At this point most of the content was surely outdated. But at least some of the tunes survived and there is good reason to assume that some of them were still sung and performed in some living-rooms. In 1896 Breitkopf & Härtel published a songbook, a Volksliederbuch (available at the Internet Archive), by the late Victorie Gervinus (1820-1893), wife of historian and politician Gottfried August Gervinus (1805-1871) and also a well-respected music scholar who had edited a collection of vocal pieces from Händel's operas and oratorios and written an instruction book for singing (available at BStB-DS). This collection of international national airs was put together posthumously from her personal manuscripts. From the introductory remarks we learn that these were the songs she used to sing at home, with her friends and family. 

Here we can find "Volkslieder" from Denmark, England, Scotland, France and other countries, but also some of the more "exotic" kind. There are three "Indian" songs of which at least one - with a text apparently added by Thibaut - can be traced back to Dalberg's anthology (No. 37, p. 34, i. e. Dalberg No. 22, p. 20; Thibaut, RISM). Additionally there are also two versions of "Mizmoune", the Moorish aria from Shaw's Travels (No. 55-6, pp. 60; Dalberg, No. 46, p. 39): the one from Bardale (No. 19, p. 33) and another originally from Thibaut's repertoire (see RISM) but most likely received from Kestner (see RISM) whom they knew personally. Not at least she also used to sing "Die Erwartung" (here No. 57, p. 61) as published in Bardale. This means that some of the tunes made available by Dalberg in 1802 were still known by the end of the century: they were part of the singing tradition in an educated household. And by publishing them again in this songbook their life-span as "Volkslieder" was once again prolonged. 

Literature:
  • Vanessa Agnew, Enlightenment Orpheus: The Power of Music in Other Worlds, Oxford & New York, 2008 
  • Eduard Baumstark & Wilhelm von Waldbrühl, Bardale. Sammlung auserlesener Volkslieder der verschiedenen Völker der Erde mit deutschem Texte und Begleitung des Pianoforte und der Guitarre, herausgegeben und dem Herrn Geheimen Rathe und Professor Dr. A. F. J. Thibaut hochachtungsvoll gewidmet, I. Band, Friedrich Busse, Braunschweig, 1829 (available at BStB-DS: Mus.pr. 2623-1, Google Books & the Internet Archive
  • Eduard Baumstark, Ant. Friedr. Justus Thibaut. Blätter der Erinnerung für seine Verehrer und für die Freunde der reinen Tonkunst, Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig, 1841 (at the Internet Archive
  • Garland Cannon, The Life and Mind of Oriental Jones. Sir William Jones, the Father of Modern Linguistics, Cambridge & New York, 1990 
  • Joep Bor, The Rise of Ethnomusicology: Sources on Indian Music c.1780 - c.1890, in: Yearbook for Traditional Music 20, 1988, pp. 51-73 
  • Nicholas Cook, Encountering the Other, Redefining the Self: Hindostannie Airs, Haydn's Folksong Settings and the 'Common Practice' Style, in: Martin Clayton & Bennett Zon (eds.), Music and Orientalism in the British Empire 1780s - 1940s. Portrayal of the East, Aldershot & Burlington, 2007, pp. 13-38 
  • Michael Embach & Joscelyn Godwin, Johann Friedrich Hugo von Dalberg (1760-1812). Schriftsteller - Musiker - Domherr, Mainz, 1998 (= Quellen und Abhandlungen zur Mittelrheinischen Kirchengeschichte 82) [pp. 366-375 about 'Ueber die Musik der Indier'] 
  • Michael Embach & Volker Gallé (eds.), Fritz von Dalberg zum 200. Todestag. Vom Erfinden und Bilden, Worms, 2002 [here pp. 59-85: Gallé, Dalberg und die Indische Kultur]
  • Gerry Farrell, Indian Music and the West, Oxford, 1997
  • Johann Reinhold Forster's [...] Reise um die Welt während den Jahren 1772 bis 1775 [...] Geschrieben und herausgegeben von dessen Sohn und Reisegefährten George Forster, Haude & Spener, Berlin, 1784, 3 Vols., at the Internet Archive 
  • Alexa Frank, Sanftes Gefühl und stille Tiefe der Seele. Herders Indien, Würzburg, 2009 
  • Victorie Gervinus, Volksliederbuch. 80 Volkslieder (deutsche, dänische, englische, französische, hebräische, indische, irische, italienische, maurische, persische, portugiesische, schottische, schwedische, spanische, ungarische, wälisische) mit deutschem Text und Klavierbegleitung, Breitkopf & Härtel, Leipzig, Brüssel & New York, n. d. [1896] (available at the Internet Archive
  • Gerlinde Hahn, "Ich möchte, Du gäbest alles nach Hannover" - Die "Sammlung Kestner" in der Stadtbibliothek Hannover, in: Hannoversche Geschichtsblätter, Neue Folge, Band 67/68, 2003/4, pp. 27-36
  • Helmut Kowar, Einige Bemerkungen zu Dalbergs "Über die Musik der Inder", in: Musicologica Austriaca 12, 1993, pp. 41-58 
  • [Thomas Moore], A Selection of Popular National Airs with Symphonies and Accompaniments by Sir John Stevenson MusDoc; [Henry R. Bishop]. The Words by Thomas Moore, Esq., 6 Volumes, J. Power, London, 1818-1828 (first 3 Vols. digitized by BStB: 4 Mus.pr. 35243-(1-3) [click on Einzelbände])
  • [William Ouseley (ed.)], Oriental Collections. Consisting Of Original Essays And Dissertations, Translations And Miscellaneous Papers; Illustrating The History And Antiquities, The Arts, Sciences, And Literature, Of Asia, 3 Vols., Cadell & Davies, London, 1797-1800 (at the Internet Archive
  • Friedrich Silcher, Ausländische Volksmelodien, mit deutschem, zum Theil aus dem Englischen etc. übertragenem Text, gesammelt und für eine oder zwei Singstimmen mit Begleitung des Pianoforte und der Guitarre gesetzt, 4 Hefte, Fues, Tübingen, 1835-1841 (available at the Internet Archive
  • [A. F. J. Thibaut], Ueber Reinheit der Tonkunst, 2. vermehrte Ausgabe, Mohr, Heidelberg, 1826 (at the Internet Archive
  • Verzeichnis der von dem verstorbenen Grossh. Badischen Prof. der Rechte und Geheimrathe Dr. Anton Friedrich Justus Thibaut zu Heidelberg hinterlassenen Musiksammlung, welche als ein ganzes ungetrennt veräussert werden soll, Karl Groos, Heidelberg, 1842 (at the Internet Archive
  • A. Leslie Willson, A Mythical Image. The Ideal of India in German Romanticism, Durham, 1964 
  • Ian Woodfield, The 'Hindostannie Air': English Attempts to Understand Indian Music in the Late 18th Century, in: Journal of the Royal Musical Association 119, 1994[a], pp. 189-211 
  • Ian Woodfield, Collecting Indian Songs in Late 18th-Century Lucknow. Problems of Transcription, in: British Journal of Ethnomusicology 3, 1994[b], pp. 73-88 
  • Ian Woodfield, English Musicians in the Age of Exploration, Stuyvesant NY, 1995 (= Sociology of Music 8)
  • Ian Woodfield, Music of the Raj. A Social and Economic History of Music in Late Eighteenth-Century Anglo-Indian society, New York, 2001 
  • Bennett Zon, From 'very acute and plausible' to curiously misinterpreted': Sir William Jones's 'On the Musical Mode of the Hindus' (1792) and its Reception in Later Musical Treatises, in: Michael J. Franklin (ed.), Romantic Represantations of British India, London, 2006, pp. 197-219 
  • Bennett Zon, Representing Non-Western Music in Nineteenth-Century Britain, Rochester, 2007

Sunday, January 10, 2016

"Exotic" Tunes in Rousseau's Dictionnaire (1768) & Laborde's Essai (1780)

I am at the moment interested in the history of the so-called "national airs" - in Germany "Volkslieder" or "National-Lieder" -, especially those of the more "exotic" kind. This means tunes from outside of Europe or from the European periphery like Scandinavia or the Balkan. What was available in the 18th and early 19th century, what was published when and in which context? What did scholars or also the general public - at least those interested in music - know about foreign countries' musical culture and how did they use these kind of songs and tunes.

Two French musicological publications from the second half of the 18th century were of particular importance, both as source and as inspiration for later scholars, editors and writers: Rousseau's Dictionnaire de Musique (1768) and Laborde's Essai sur la Musique (1780). The Dictionnaire was Philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau's major work in the field of musicology. Here he included a small but significant and influential selection of "exotic" foreign tunes. 
As usual I have added links to the - to my knowledge - best available digital copies of the different editions of this work. These are all complete scans, including the plates. Therefore there is no need to bother with those that can be found at Google Books. They are simply not usable. In every single case the plates were not scanned correctly (see for example here, here and here). 

But this is a general problem with the scans produced by Google. Much too often all kinds of extras like plates and foldouts have been mutilated or are missing. This is really annoying and seems to me like a waste of resources. In case of Rousseau's Dictionnaire at least the BStB, München offers a small booklet with all the plates (4 Mus.th. 1356 a). But this is an exception. Thankfully today better scans are available in other repositories, in this case at the Internet Archive and the French National Library.


Rousseau used the five tunes on plate N to illustrate his article about the term "music" and thankfully he also names his sources. The one from China was taken from du Halde's Description Géographique, Historique, Chronologique, Politique, et Physique De L'Empire de la Chine et de la Tartarie Chinoise (Paris, 1735, here Vol. 3, plate bef. p. 267) and the Persian song - with words - from Jean Chardin's famous Voyages en Perse, et Autres Lieux de L'Orient (1711, here Vol. 2, plate No. 26 ). There are also a Swiss Kuhreigen and two "Canadian" tunes. The latter he borrowed from Marin Mersenne's classic work Harmonie Universelle (Paris, 1636, here Vol. 1, pt. 3, bk. 3, p. 148, at Gallica BnF).

While the "Danse Canadienne" was in fact from Canada - at least Mersenne claimed to have received it from one French Captain who had been there - the other one wasn't. These were three of the five fragmentary tunes from Jean de Léry's Histoire d'Un Voyage Faict en la Terre du Brésil (Geneva 1585, p. 159 etc; Latin ed., Geneva 1586, p. 128 etc), the very first American music published in Europe. Mersenne identified them in his book as "Trois Chansons des Ameriquains" and clearly acknowledged his source.

Rousseau must have overlooked that or maybe he was a little bit sloppy. In his Dictionnaire they mutated into a "Chanson des Sauvages du Canada". Henceforth these three  Brazilian tunes  would lead second life as one from Canada.  He also doctored these tunes a little bit and "[...] copies none of the ethnic melodies correctly from the authors whom he cites as his sources" (Stevenson 1973, p. 17).

The Dictionnaire was also translated into English, at first only as an addition to James Grassineau's Musical Dictionary (first published London 1740, ESTC T135521; this was an English translation of de Brossard's Dictionnaire de Musique, 1700) without any illustrations but then some years later also on its own: 
  • Appendix to Grassineau's Musical Dictionary, Selected from the Dictionnaire de Musique of J. J. Rousseau, J. Robson, London, 1769 [ESTC T112418, ESTC T112419] (at BDH; here bound together with the first edition of Grassineau's Dictionary) 
  • A Dictionary of Music. Translated from the French of Mons. J. J. Rousseau. By William Waring, J. French, London, n. d. [1775?; ESTC T137130; only available at ECCO] 
  • A Complete Dictionary of Music. Consisting Of A Copious Explanation of all Words necessary to a true Knowledge and Understanding of Music. Translated from the original French of J. J. Rousseau. By William Waring. Second Edition, J. Murray, London & Luke White, Dublin, 1779 [ESTC N5070], here pp. 265-6, at the Internet Archive & Google Books (two other ed. publ. by J. French et al., London, n. d. [1779, ESTC T163022] and Luke White, Dublin [ESTC 5072] available at ECCO). 
Waring's translation was first published c. 1775 and then in a new edition in 1779. A copy of the latter is available at Google Books and it seems to be more or less complete. Thankfully the English publisher decided to integrate most of the content of the plates into the main text. Therefore the tunes - but only one of the two "Canadian", in fact the one originally from Brazil - found a place in the article about the term "music". Interestingly this was - as far as I know - the first time that Mersenne's melody as well as Chardin's "Persian Tune" were published in England. 

These tunes later appeared again in other publications. Musicologist William Crotch was of course familiar with the Dictionnaire and included some of them in his Specimens of Various Styles of Music (London, 1808, here f. ex. No. 315, p. 152; Nos. 351-2, p. 165). Three of the five can also be found - more than half a century later -  in Thomas Hastings' Dissertation on Musical Taste (Albany, 1822, p. 219, at BStB).

For reasons unknown to me there was no German translation of the complete book, only a review and some excerpts in a periodical, but without the music or other illustrations 
  • Wöchentliche Nachrichten und Anmerkungen die Musik betreffend, Vol. 2, 1767-8, No. 38, 21.3.1768, p. 293 etc. (at the Internet Archive) & dto., Vol. 3, No. 15, 9.10.1768 , p. 111 etc. (at Google Books) 
But one may assume that German scholars were able to get a copy of the original French edition. At least the tunes may have been known to some of those interested in this particular genre. Carl Maria von Weber used the Chinese melody in the Ouverture of his music for Turandot (Op. 37, 1809, see Jähns, No. 75, pp. 87-9). As late as 1829 Baumstark and Zuccalmaglio refer in their Bardale (see p. 75, No. 1) to the Dictionnaire as the source of Chardin's Persian tune. 

Rousseau confined himself to only five "exotic" tunes. Another French scholar was much more generous and printed more than 50 different tunes from all kind of countries - from Norway to China - in what surely was one of the most impressive musicological works of the 18h century: 
  • Jean-Benjamin de Laborde, Essai Sur La Musique Ancienne Et Moderne, Onfroy, Paris, 1780, 4 Vols
    Vols. 1-4, at the Internet Archive (University of Toronto)
    Vols. 1-4, at the Internet Archive (NLS)
    Vol. 1, at the Internet Archive (UNC Music Library) 
Jean-Benjamin de La Borde (1734-1794; see Wikipedia), valet de chambre of Louis XV, businessman, millionaire, traveller, writer, musicologist and composer. of operas and songs. His Choix de Chansons Mises en Musique (1773, new ed., 1881, available at the Internet Archive) was still available a century after its first publication. Unfortunately he didn't survive the French revolution and was executed in 1794. This Essai was his major work, a massive treatise of more than 2400 pages in four volumes, beautifully illustrated and with numerous musical examples and songs, mostly from France but also from many other countries. Thankfully two excellent scans of the complete set are available at the Internet Archive. 

Laborde discussed Chinese, Persian, Turkish, Arab, African but also Russian, modern Greece and Dalmatian music (see Vol. 1, pp. 125-48, pp. 162-200, pp. 216-21, pp. 360-93, pp. 421-430, pp. 440-5). The many original songs and tunes served as an additional bonus. A part of these pieces were borrowed from the popular travel literature, for example the six Arab tunes (Vol. 1, pp. 383-5) from Thomas Shaw's Travels or Observations Relating to Several Parts of Barbary and the Levant (Oxford, 1738, p. 272, French ed., 1743, Vol. 1, p. 348), a Siamese song (Vol. 1, p. 436) from Nicolas Gervaise's Histoire Naturelle et Politique du Royaume de Siam (Paris, 1688, after p. 130, at Google Books, not scanned correctly) or a Greece song (Vol. 1, pp. 429-30) from Pierre Augustin Guys' Voyage Littéraire de la Gréce ou Lettres sur les Grecs (1776, Vol. 2, p. 4). 

But he also included a considerable number of songs and tunes from Iceland and Norway (Vol. 2, pp. 402-18), among them some of the so-called Døleviser, a group of songs - "from the valley" - written to popular older tunes by Norwegian poet Edvard Storm (1749-1794) 10 years earlier. In fact this was the first time these pieces were printed, and long before they would become available in Norway (see Storm, 1949). Laborde had received all the Scandinavian material from the secretary of the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, one C. F. Jacobi. 


In the second volume (pt. 2, pp. 170-1, pp. 174-7) we can find a curious mixed bag of international melodies like a "Romeca" from Greece, an "Air de Sauvages du Canada" - this was the real Canadian tune from Mersenne, but taken from Rousseau's Dictionnaire and arranged for four voices -, an "Air Irlandois" that may have been the first Irish tune printed on the continent as well as some from Russia. Not at least Laborde managed to include a couple of Chinese tunes of which only a few were borrowed from du Halde. The others had not been published yet. 

All in all this was at that time the largest collection of international tunes available, only matched more than 20 years later by Fritz von Dalberg in Deutschland who included 50 pieces in his extended German edition of Sir William Jones' On the Musical Modes of the Hindus (1802, available at the Internet Archive). Publications like these reflect a much greater interest in foreign and "exotic" music cultures both by scholars and the general public. Interestingly Laborde's groundbreaking work was not translated into English or German. But interested scholars outside of France of course took note of the Essai and the music included. Crotch in his Specimens regularly refers to it and also borrowed some tunes. Even 90 years later in 1870 Danish composer A. P. Berggreen was still familiar with the book and reprinted one of its Chinese tunes in his collection of international national airs (see here p. 101, note to No. 75). 

Literature: 
  • Eduard Baumstark & Wilhelm von Waldbrühl, Bardale. Sammlung auserlesener Volkslieder der verschiedenen Völker der Erde mit deutschem Texte und Begleitung des Pianoforte und der Guitarre, Friedrich Busse, Braunschweig, 1829 (available at BStB-DS: Mus.pr. 2623-1, Google Books & the Internet Archive
  • A. P. Berggreen, Folke-Sange og Melodier Fra Lande Udenfor Europa, Med en Tillaeg af Folkens Nationalsange, Samlade og Udsatte for Pianoforte (= Folke-Sange og Melodier, Fædrelandske og Fremmede 10, Anden Utgave), C. A. Reitzel, Köbenhavn, 1870 (available at the Internet Archive
  • William Crotch, Specimens of Various Styles of Music referred to in A Course of Lectures, read at Oxford & London and Adapted to keyed Instruments, Vol. 1, London, n. d. [1808] (available at the Internet Archive
  • Matthew Gelbart, The Invention of "Folk Music" and "Art Music". Emerging Categories from Ossian to Wagner, Cambridge 2007 (New Perspectives in Music History and Criticism) 
  • Friedrich Wilhelm Jähns, Carl Maria von Weber in seinen Werken. Chronologisch-thematisches Verzeichniss seiner sämmtlichen Compositionen nebtst Angabe der unvollständigen, verloren gegangenen, zweifelhaften und untergeschobenen mit Beschreibung der Autographen, Angabe der Ausgaben und Arrangements, kritischen, kunsthistorischen und biographischen Anmerkungen, unter Benutzung von Weber's Briefen und Tagebüchern und einer Beigabe von Nachbildungen seiner Handschrift, Berlin, 1871 (at Google Books)
  • Robert Stevenson, Written Sources for Indian Music until 1882, in: Ethnomusicology 17, 1973, pp. 1-40
  • Edvard Storm, Døleviser. Utgitt ved 200-Årsminne. Tekningar av Øystein Jørgensen. Litteraturhistorisk Oversikt og Kommentarer av Professor Didrik Arup Seip, Oslo, 1949 
  • Ueber die Musik der Inder. Eine Abhandlung des William Jones. Aus dem Englischen übersetzt, mit erläuternden Anmerkungen und Zusätzen begleitet, von F. H. v. Dalberg. Nebst einer Sammlung indischer und anderer Volks-Gesänge und 30 Kupfern, Beyer und Maring, Erfurt, 1802 (available at the Internet Archive)

Monday, January 4, 2016

Scottish Songs in Germany - Max Bruch, Edmund Friese & Hermann Kestner (1864-68)

In Germany during the 19th century there was a great interest for Scottish literature and culture. "Schottische Volkslieder" were very popular since Herder's time. But somewhat surprising is the lack of original tunes from Scotland. Haydn and Beethoven had arranged many songs for the British market but very few of these works were published in Germany. Burns' songs were easily available, but rarely with their original tunes. German composers preferred to set the translated texts to new music. 

For example "My Heart's in the Highlands" became one of the most popular songs in Germany, either as a Volkslied with half a dozen different tunes or as a Lied with numerous new melodies (see "Mein Herz ist im Hochland" - New Musical Settings By German Composers 1836-1842, in this blog). The other very popular "Scottish" song was not Scottish all: "Here comes the Bard", one of Thomas Moore's pastiches from the Popular National Airs (Vol. 4, 1823) and introduced in 1835 by Friedrich Silcher in his Ausländische Volksmelodien (Vol. 1, No. 1, p. 2) as "Stumm schläft der der Sänger" - translation by Hermann Kurz -, became a standard for male choirs. 

Up until the early 1860s the number of Scottish tunes published in Germany was not as big as one would have expected. The best and most comprehensive collection of songs from Scotland - and also from Ireland, Wales and England - only came out in 1862, not in Germany but in Denmark. The Engelske, Skotske og Irske Folk-Sange og Melodier by Danish composer A. P. Berggreen, the 4th volume of his Folke-Sange og Melodier, Fædrelandske og Fremmede (available at the Internet Archive), offered an excellent selection of British songs with original texts, Danish translations, the original tunes as well as informative notes.

Also during the '60s most of Beethoven's arrangements of Scottish - as well as Irish and Welsh - songs were published as part of the complete edition of his works (in: Serie XXIV, Nos. 257-263; Breitkopf & Härtel, Leipzig, all available at BStB). Interestingly at that time some more collections of original tunes in new arrangements began to appear in Germany: 1864 one by Max Bruch, 1865 another one by Edmund Friese and 1868 three booklets by Hermann Kestner and Eduard Hille.
  • Max Bruch, 12 Schottische Volkslieder mit hinzugefügter Klavierbegleitung, F. F. C. Leuckert, Breslau, n. d. [1864; date from Hofmeister, April 1864, p. 80]
    (available at the Internet Archive)
Young composer Max Bruch (1838-1920; see Wikipedia, see Fiske, pp. 177-82) was amongst those who became interested in Scottish songs. This small collection of 12 pieces with "well-written piano accompaniments" (Fiske, p. 178) was first published in 1864. He included some of the most popular standards like "Will ye go to the ew-bughts, Marion", "Mary's Dream" and "Auld Rob Morris". Thankfully the original texts were also printed. Some of the translations were by H. Hüffer, for others no name is given. Perhaps Bruch himself was responsible for these German texts. One reviewer (in: Niederrheinische Musik-Zeitung 13, 19 August 1865, pp. 262-3, at BStB) was very impressed by this publication. He lauded both the songs and the arrangements: 
"Die Melodien [...] haben alle eine schöne einfache und nirgends gekünstelte Eigenthümlichkeit, die aber keineswegs monoton ist, sondern je nach dem Charakter des Gedichts ganz verschieden [...] Was aber nun diese kleine Sammlung besonders auszeichnet, ist die Clavierbegleitung [...] Ein solches Eingehen in den Geist und Ton der Melodien ist uns bei ähnlichen Arbeiten noch nie vorgekommen". 
A decade later he published 7 of these songs again, this time in arrangements for a choir: 
  • Max Bruch, Denkmale des Volksgesanges. Volkslieder vierstimmig gesetzt (Sopran, Alt, Tenor u. Bass). 1. Heft: Schottische Volkslieder. Texte deutsch und englisch. Partitur, N. Simrock, Berlin, 1876 (pdf available at UDK Berlin, RA 7464-1
In 1877 the 12 Schottische Volkslieder were reprinted in Bruch-Album. 24 ausgewählte Lieder (Peter, Leipzig, see Hofmeister, Oktober 1877, p. 307). He also used Scottish tunes in other compositions, for example in the Scottish Fantasia, (1880, Op. 46), his popular violin concerto (see Fiske, pp. 179-181).
  • Edmund Friese, Schottische Volkslieder für eine Singstimme mit Begleitung des Pianoforte, 2 Hefte, J. Rieter-Biedermann, Leipzig & Winterthur, n. d. [1865, date from Hofmeister, April 1865, p. 65; adverts in:  AMZ NF 3, 1865, p. 207; LAMZ 2, 1867, p. 244; AMZ 4, 1869, p. 360]
    (available at the Internet Archive
AMZ 4, 1869, p. 360
Much less known than Bruch was Edmund Friese (1834-1897), no composer, but a respected musician, at that time Musikdirektor in the town of Offenbach. He came from Leipzig. His father was the well known publisher Robert Friese (1805-1848) whose imprint we can find for example in Robert Schumann's Neue Zeitschrift für Musik as well as in a great number of musical publications. He studied at the Conservatory in Leipzig and then first became violinist in the Gewandhaus-Orchestra. In his younger years Friese worked in Reval, Helsinki, Edinburgh, Zürich, Frankfurt until he came to Offenbach where he stayed for the rest of his life (see Schmidt 1925, p. 1). 

This collection was his very first published work but for some reason only one more would follow (3 Ungarische Märsche, 1880, see Hofmeister, März 1880, p. 81). One may assume that he became familiar with Scottish songs during his time in Edinburgh. His selection is interesting. More than half of them are by Burns, for example "My Heart's in the Highlands", "John Anderson, My Jo" and ""Ye Banks and Braes o' Bonnie Doon". Besides these he also used other classics like "Pibroch of Donuil Dhu" and "Flowers in the Forest". His source may have been Graham's Songs of Scotland (3 Vols., 1848-9) where all the 12 songs can be found. 

Unfortunately he didn't include the original texts but only the translations. Some of the German texts were borrowed from Pertz and Corrodi, others are uncredited, like "Mein Herz ist im Hochland". But that one is the very popular adaptation by Ferdinand Freiligrath first published in 1836. All in all this was a worthwhile publication although - as far as I know - it apparently wasn't such a big success. There seem to be very few extant copies, in fact I know of only one.
  • Eduard Hille & Hermann Kestner, Ausländische Volkslieder für Sopran, Alt, Tenor und Bass, bearbeitet und mit deutscher Übersetzung versehen. Schottische Volkslieder, 3 Hefte, Adolph Nagel, Hannover, n. d. [1867-8, date from Hofmeister, Dezember 1867, p. 208 & April 1868, p. 59)]
    (available at the Internet Archive: Heft 1 & 2, Heft 3
Hermann Kestner (1810-1890; see Hahn 2003/4; Sievers 1961; Werner 2003/4; Werner 1919; very short: Wikipedia) from Hannover, a collector of art and books and also a notable private scholar, was one of the most knowledgeable experts for international "Volkslieder" in Germany. Not at least he had amassed an extensive collection of songs from all possible countries. One may say that at that time nobody knew more about that genre than Kestner. And surely nobody in Germany knew more songbooks and songs. His great collection of manuscripts has survived and is today available at the Stadtbibliothek Hannover (see RISM; Werner 1919).

Unfortunately he never published as much as he would have been able to. A collection of Spanish and Portuguese songs came out in 1846 (available at SUB Göttingen; Vol. 2, 1859, dto.). But he shared the songs, his translations, his knowledge and his library freely with other scholars and editors and was in contact with for example Ludwig Erk in Germany, who used some of his works, and A. P. Berggreen in Denmark whom he helped out occasionally. 

In 1866 he started a series with the title Ausländische Volkslieder. Composer Eduard Hille (1822-1891, see Fuchs 1987), Akademischer Musikdirektor in Göttingen, wrote the arrangements, not for piano and voice á la Bruch and Friese, but for mixed choirs. The first two volumes were dedicated to Irish and Welsh Songs (see Hofmeister, August 1866, p. 127). Each volume consisted of three booklets with altogether 18 pieces. The third volume with Scottish songs appeared in 1867 and 1868. It seems that more was planned. Wille and Kestner had also prepared Scandinavian songs (see f. ex. RISM 451503615) but they were never published. One may assume that the first volumes didn't sell particularly well and the publisher wasn't interested in more. 

Kestner's major source was clearly Graham's Songs of Scotland to which he refers in the preface to Vol. 1. But at least two songs seem to have been borrowed from Berggreen's collection: "There were three Ravens" and "The Cruel Mother" (Vol. 3, Nos. 4 & 6). Otherwise he simply recycled most of the standards that were already available in Germany, like "The Bush aboon Traquair", "The Campbells are coming", "I Dream''d I Lay" and of course "My Heart's in the Highlands" and "John Anderson, my Jo". Kestner also included "The Blue Bell of Scotland", not a Scottish song at all but an old English popular hit, and the above-mentioned "Here sleeps the Bard" by Thomas Moore. Both were well known and very popular in Germany since the 1830s. The translations were all by Hermann Kestner himself but for me they often sound rather stiff.

Nonetheless this was also a worthwhile compilation of songs and a welcome addition to what was already available. Of course he did not intend a scholarly collection as he say in the preface but one for practical use. But Kestner would have been able to put together a much more comprehensive work about songs from the British Isles and particularly from Scotland. Judging from the descriptions of his manuscripts he was familiar with nearly all the relevant Scottish publications, including the Scots Musical Museum as well as Kinloch's and Motherwell's important books. But maybe the time wasn't ripe for such a work. Only in the following decade another admirer of Scottish, Irish and Welsh national airs, young scholar Alfons Kissner, would attempt to make available a much greater amount of original tunes. But I will write about his impressive series of publications in another article.

Literature 
  • Roger Fiske, Scotland In Music: A European Enthusiasm, Cambridge 1983 
  • Hermann Fuchs, Die akademischen Musikdirektoren Arnold Wehner (1846-1855) und Eduard Hille (1855-1891), in: Martin Staehlin (ed.), Musikwissenschaft und Musikpflege an der Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Göttingen, 1987 (= Göttinger Universitätsschriften A 3), pp. 90-107
  • G. F. Graham, The Songs of Scotland Adapted To Their Appropriate Melodies Arranged With Pianoforte Accompaniments By G. F. Graham, T. M. Muddle, J. T. Surenne, H. E. Dibdin, Finlay Dun, &c. Illustrated with Historical, Biographical, and Critical Notices, 3 Vols, Edinburgh, 1848-9 (available at NLS & Internet Archive
  • Gerlinde Hahn, "Ich möchte, Du gäbest alles nach Hannover" - Die "Sammlung Kestner" in der Stadtbibliothek Hannover, in: Hannoversche Geschichtsblätter, Neue Folge, Band 67/68, 2003/4, pp. 27-36
  • Karl Schmidt, Nachruf: Robert M. Friese, in: Wissenschaftliche Veröffentlichungen aus dem Siemens-Konzern IV, Heft 2, Berlin & Heidelberg, 1925, p. 1-8 (this is an obituary for one of Edmund Friese's sons who became a professor for electrical engineering and a director of Siemens) 
  • Heinrich Sievers, Die Musik in Hannover. Die musikalischen Strömungen in Niedersachsen vom Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Musikgeschichte der Landeshauptstadt Hannover, Hannover, 1961 
  • Theodor W. Werner, Die Musikhandschriften des Kestnerschen Nachlasses im Stadtarchiv zu Hannover, in Hannoversche Geschichtsblätter 22, 1919, pp. 241-372 
  • Luise-Marie Werner, Hermann Kestner - ein bedeutender hannoverscher Forscher, in: Hannoversche Geschichtsblätter, Neue Folge, Band 67/68, 2003/4, pp. 37-39

Monday, November 9, 2015

The Collection and Publication of National Airs in Finland 1795-1900


I. 

Since the 18th century efforts were underway in Europe to define, collect and and publish what was regarded as the national song tradition. Every country had a different history in this respect. Some were very early, like Scotland, others were latecomers, like for example Norway, where the systematic collection of "national airs" only started in the 1840s (see in this blog: Some Early Song Collections from Denmark & Norway). Here I will discuss the development in Finland until the end of the 19th century. 

This is only an attempt at a short bibliographic survey for comparative purposes. When did the collection and publication of Finnish national airs, - in German "Volkslieder" - start? Who collected them? When did the first relevant anthologies appear and who published them? What was the reception outside of Finland, particularly in Germany and England? I am interested here in the songs including the music, not in collections of only the texts. I can't discuss the different genres of the Finnish song tradition here, but it will become clear what kind of songs were predominantly collected and published. Also the music of Finland's Swedish minority has been left out. This is a different problem that would deserve an own article. 

And besides that I also wanted to know which of the relevant publications are now available online. Much to my surprise most of them have been digitized and can easily be used. Particular thanks go to the Suomen Kirjallisuuden Seura (Finnish Literature Society). Their small but excellent Digital Library (SKS Digikirjasto) offers nearly all the early collections with helpful introductory notes. Of great help was also the repository of the Finnish libraries at Doria.fi where additional important works are available. 

II. 

Bits and pieces of information about Finnish folk culture were already published in the 16th century. For example reformator Michael Agricola (1509-1557) included a poem made up of names of pagan deities in the preface of his psalm-book (Dauidin Psaltari, 1551, [p. 22], available at Doria.fi; see Sarajas, pp. 10-11). The earliest reference to music in Finland may be an interesting vignette in Olaus Magnus' famous Historia de Gentibus Septentrionalibus (1555, p. 141, at the Internet Archive & Google Books): 
Here we can see six people dancing and two musicians playing fiddle and bagpipe. It is claimed that this is from Lapland but there is good reason to assume that these were really Finns (see Bartens, pp. 8-9). In fact in the older literature Lapps and Finns were often mixed up. 

At first most of the relevant knowledge about the old Finnish culture was collected and published by clergymen who of course also fought against paganism and superstitions. Jaakko Finno complained in the preface to his hymnal - the first in Finnish (Yxi Wäha Suomemkielen Wirsikirja, 1583) - about the "godless, shameful, bawdy and ridiculous songs" of the bards (quoted from Hautala 1968, p. 12; see Sarajas, pp. 16-7). And they taught the people the new hymns, most of them with tunes imported from the continent. The year 1605 saw the publication of Hemming Maskulainen's expanded new hymnbook with the same title. From the first half of the 17th century we have two manuscripts of tunes, the one from Kangasala (1624) and one called Liber Templi Ilmolensis (see Old Hymn Tunes from Finland, Sibelius Akatemia; also Haapalainen 1976). In 1701 the "New Finnish Songbook" (Uusi Suomenkielen Wirsi-kirja; a later print, 1730, at BStB, München, Liturg. 1331 o) was published. It became later known as Vanha Visikirja, the "old songbook". A year later, in 1702, the corresponding book of hymn tunes, Yxi Tarpelinen Nuotti-Kirja, was printed. This was what the people sang and these hymns of course competed against the old popular indigenous tunes. These melodies were then also often used for secular broadside songs and became part of the popular singing tradition (see Niinimäki 2007). 

Already before the end of the 17th century one supposedly old "Finnish" song - but only the text, not the tune - found its way into a German publication. Daniel Georg Morhof included in his groundbreaking Unterricht von der teutschen Sprache und Poesie (1682, here new ed., 1700, pp. 374-6) a bear song, "ein so genanntes Bärenlied [...] welches die Finnen bey ihrer Bärenjagt haben pflegen zu singen". He printed a Finnish text and his own German translation.


Morhof had found it in a recent work by Petrus Bång, professor of theology in Åbo, the Historia Ecclesiae Sveo-Gothicae (1675, pp. 213-4). Prof. Bång's source for the Finnish and Swedish texts was an unpublished report from 1673 by another clergyman, Gabriel Tuderus, about a trip to the Lapps in 1669 (later printed in Twå Berättelser..., 1773, here pp. 15-17) and it seems that this was not a Finnish but a Lapp song (see also Sarajas, pp. 76-82). But nonetheless this piece lived on in Germany as "Finnisches Bärenlied". A century later Johann Gottlieb Georgi included his own new translation in Beschreibung aller Nationen des rußischen Reiches (1776, p. 21, see also the English translation, in: Russia: Or A Compleat Historical Account [...], London, I, 1780, pp. 50-1) and even Herder referred to the song in his Volkslieder (II, 1779, notes, p. 304). 

The 18th century saw a growing interest in Finnish language and culture, the first fennophiles and some attempts at collecting indigenous "folk poetry". MacPherson's Ossian and Herder's ideas became known among Finnish scholars and intellectuals. This culminated in two very influential major works: Gabriel Henrik Porthan's De Poësi Fennica (5 Vols, 1766-1788, at the Internet Archive) and Christfried Ganander's Mythologia Fennica (1789, at Hathi Trust; see Sarajas, pp. 112- 320, Hautala, pp. 13-18, Laitinen 1998, pp. 40, 43-49). 

But they all discussed only the texts, there was for a long time apparently no interest in the music. This is a little bit surprising. We should remember that for example the very first Latvian and Estonian tunes were printed as early as 1635, in Friedrich Menius' Syntagma de Origine Livonorum (see the reprint in Scriptores Rerum Livonicarum II, 1848, p. 525). In the latter part of the 18th century music from even the most exotic places like China or America was easily available in Europe, thanks to travellers, scholars, musicians and not at least the new fascination with national airs since the 1720s. 

III. 

By all accounts the first one who actually discussed Finnish traditional songs was Jacob Tengström (1755-1832; see Wikipedia), scholar, public intellectual, professor of theology in Åbo and later bishop there. In July 1795 he held a lecture at the Royal Academy in Stockholm: "Om de Forna Finnars Sällskapnöjen och Tidsfördrif". This was only published 7 years later in the Kongl. Vitterhets Historie och Antiquitets Academiens Handlingar (Vol. 7, 1802, pp. 265-287, at the Internet Archive). A part of this lecture is dedicated to the poetry and music (here pp. 277-87). He offered information about the old "rune songs" including some musical examples and noted their "mycket enkel och monotonisk melodie" and "melankolisk expression". He also mentioned the songs imported from Sweden and Russia as well as the influence of the hymn tunes. 


This was a good start but the next contributions to this topic by Finnish writers were slow in coming. During the following decades it were usually foreign musicians and travellers who cared about music from Finland. The first one to publish a Finnish tune was the legendary Abbé Georg JosephVogler (1749-1814), a composer, music educator, musicologist and organ virtuoso and also one of the most controversial music stars of his time. He was working in Stockholm at the Swedish court as the direktör för musiken since 1786 (see Veit, p. 407) and since 1790 he was busy with an interesting and groundbreaking "project": the collection, performance and publication of foreign national airs. One may say that in some way he tried to do for the tunes what Herder had done for the lyrics of what was called "Volkslieder" in Germany even though he of course was not yet a systematic collector of international tunes (see also my earlier blogpost about Vogler' Polymelos). 

His first publication of national airs, Polymelos ou Caractères de Musique de differentes Nations (Bossler, Speyer, 1791; online at BLB Karlsruhe, DonMusDr 272), offered 6 tunes: from Sweden, Russia, Italy, Scotland respectively Poland but not yet one from Finland. But over the years he expanded his repertoire and he used to play these kind of pieces in his spectacular organ concerts. In two shows in Stockholm in November 1794 he performed one called "Finsk nationalmusik". But it is not possible to identify this tune. In November 1796 - also in Stockholm - Vogler played another song: "Finsk Aria: 'Ak minan...'" (dates from Vretblad 1927, pp. 96-7). These are his earliest known performances of Finnish tunes in Stockholm but of course it is possible that he had played them even earlier in other towns. 

The second of these tunes was then also published in a small collection of piano pieces with variations that was a part of an instruction book for pianists. He used predominantly foreign national airs for this work. We find here also tunes from Sweden, Morocco, Africa, China, Russia and Venice: 
  • "Ak minan rakas linduisen. Air Finois", in: Pieces de Clavecin faciles, doigtées, avec des Variations d'une difficulté graduelle pour servir d'exemple à l'ecole de Clavecin. Par L'Abbé Vogler, Stockholm, n. d. [1798], pp. 12-15 (at the Internet Archive; the Clavér-Schola - with notes about the tunes on pp. 34-49 - is available at the UB Greifswald)

Interestingly this one was not an indigenous Finnish melody but one of those imported hymn tunes that were borrowed for secular popular songs on broadsides (the following summarized from Ninimääki 2007, pp. 108-10, p. 263; Haapalainen 1976, No. 43, pp. 108-10). This particular tune was already known in Bohemia in the 15th century and later also used in Poland and Germany. In Finland it became associated with two spiritual texts: "Armon lijton Engell" and "Ihminen jong Jumal loi". The former was first published in Hemming Maskulainen's hymn-book in 1605 (No. 179). The tune can be found in the Kangasala manuscript and the Liber Templi Ilmolensis (see Old Hymn Tunes, No. 172). The new hymn-book published in 1701 included both texts (No. 193, p. 215; No. 407, pp. 521, in a later ed., 1730, at BStB) and melody was first printed in 1702 in the above-mentioned collection of hymn tunes (Yxi Tarpelinen Nuotti-Kirja, 1702). 

A secular text to the tune of "Ihminen jong Jumal loi" was published in 1764 in Turku on a broadside with the title Yxi lystillinen ja kaunis Rackauden Weisu (["One entertaining and beautiful love-song"], reprint 1828 available at BStB & Google Books): "Ah mun rakas lintusein" ["Oh, my dear birdie"], a song with 28 verses.
 Vogler must have heard it somewhere and I really wonder if he was aware of the tune's history. Nonetheless this tune happened to be the very first printed Finnish national air. By the way, it should be noted this was a very popular song and reprints of the broadside appeared as late as 1876 (see catalog, KK Helsinki). 

Abbé Vogler had at least one more tune but he only used it some years later when he was back in Germany. In 1806 he staged a very spectacular show in Munich where he played organ and was supported by a great choir. The program consisted of Bavarian tunes and foreign national airs. He performed there - on the organ, of course - a flute concert: the Allegro was a Swiss tune, the Andante an "African Romance" and the Rondo "ein finnischer Gesang" (see the program in Königlich-Bairisches Intelligenzblatt 11, No. XII, 22.3.1806, p. 190, at BStB). This was then published as sheet music, but arranged for piano. At least one reviewer liked it very much and noted that it was "Unter allen Originalstücken das Originellste" (in AMZ 9, 1807, p. 386):
  • No. 8: "Rondo. Ein finnischer Gesang", in: Polymelos. Ein nazional-karakteristisches Orgel-Koncert, in zwei Theilen, zu 16 verschiedenen Original-Stücken, aufgeführt, mit Zustimmung eines Chores von 80 Sängern im evangelischen Hofbethaus zu München, den 29. und 31sten März 1806, für's Fortepiano, mit willkürlicher Begleitung einer Violine und Violonzell gesetzt, variiert, und Ihro Majestät der regierenden Königin b. Baiern zugeeignet vom Abt Vogler, Falter, München, n. d. [1806] (see Verzeichnis Falter, 1810, col. 42 [p. 22]; Schafhäutl, No. 185, pp. 267-8; see the incipit in Denkmäler der Tonkunst 16/2, p. LIX)

While the Abbé Vogler was busy with his Polymelos some musically interested travellers visited Finland and brought back more songs and tunes. Giusseppe Acerbi (1773-1846) and A. F. Skjöldebrand (1757-1834; see Svensk Biografiskt Lexikon) were there in 1799. The latter was an officer of the Swedish army but also very much interested in arts and music. He happened to be a pupil and friend of the Abbé Vogler and even wrote for him the libretto of an opera (Schück 1903, f. ex, pp. 18-9, 38-9, 44-5). 

In Åbo they met both Porthan and Frans Michael Franzén, a professor and popular poet. Franzén gave them a "song, composed by a simple Finnish peasant girl". Skjöldebrand was very impressed. He included this piece - the words with a translation and also the tune - in his Voyage Pittoresque au Cap Nord (Stockholm, 1801, pp. 3-4; German ed., Weimar 1805, pp. 77-9; quotes from English ed., London, 1813, pp. 11-2) and noted that it "proves that the germs of so rare a talent are to be found in the blood of that nation":

His partner and companion Acerbi, himself an accomplished musician, published his own report with the title Travels Through Sweden, Finland, And Lapland in The Years 1798 and 1799 in London in 1802. He added some interesting information about the Finns' music and poetry and even used an original Finnish tune in one of his own compositions which he performed there to a very impressed audience: "the moment we began to play their runa every eye was drowned in tears, and the emotion was general" (see f. ex. Vol. 1, pp. 219-20, pp. 281-4, pp. 300-306; quote p. 283). 


The second volume (pp. 325-336) included an appendix with some Finnish (and Lapp) tunes, for example a "Runa of the Finlanders" with variations, an example of a "rune tune" in 5/4 - it is partly identical to one of the musical examples published by Tengström the same year and nearly completely the same as the tune from Åbo in Skjödebrand's book, even though the latter noted it in 3/4 time -, "the Tune of a Song of a Finlandish Peasant Girl, who sung at our particular request at Uleaborg" and a "Finlanders Dance [...] played by a blind Fiddler". This was the very first - albeit small - collection of Finnish music published outside of Finland and Sweden. A German edition of this book appeared in 1803 but unfortunately the musical examples were left out (available at BStB). 

Another traveller, Edward Daniel Clarke (1769-1822; see Wikipedia) from England, had just started a great trip through Europe and he happened to be in Finland at the same time as Acerbi. He met him, heard him play and was very impressed by his musical abilities. But he disagreed with him on the quality of Finnish music. Clarke's remarks were only published in 1819 in the third part of his Travels in Various Countries of Europe, Asia, and Africa but they are worth quoting nonetheless (pp. 503): 
"Acerbi had taken great pains to ascertain the history of Finnish music. He told us, that the instrument of five strings, which we had seen, was the genuine harp of Finland, adapted to their five notes; that all their musical compositions, dances and songs, were only so many changes upon these five notes. To prove how these five notes might be varied so as to form a beautiful concerto, he sate down to his harpsichord, and began to play one of his own compositions in the Finnish style; introducing in the midst of it a Finnish national air. With all deference, however, to his superior judgment and skill in music, we thought that he was deceived in ascribing any thing beyond a mere humdrum to the national music of the Finns. All the popular airs that we heard in Finland, were either translations from the Swedish, or they were borrowed from Russia: this we took some pain to ascertain. Their convivial songs, for the most part obscene, were of the same nature. The purely national music of Finland is confined to a few doleful ditties, or it is adapted to the hymns and psalms of their churches. Even their dances are not national; they have a coarse kind of waltz, common in the country, but this was originally taught them by the Swedes". 
Besides his dislike for original Finnish tunes this sounds like a reasonable description of the popular music scene there, especially as he also mentioned the imported Swedish and Russian songs as well as the importance of the hymn tunes. Naturally Mr. Clarke did not note any music but confined himself to a few more short remarks (see p. 522, p. 531). 

Interestingly one tune from Acerbi's small collection won a certain popularity in England. The "Runa of the Finlanders" was reprinted by William Crotch in the Specimens of Various Styles of Music (1808, No. 290, p. 139) and also in an unidentified songbook from that time (No. 34, no title page, bound together with some vols. of the Vocal Magazine, at the Internet Archive). By the way, that was a very interesting collection with not only songs from Britain but also from Germany, Russia, France and other countries, a nice example for the growing interest for foreign national airs at that time. 

But also popular composer and piano virtuoso Ferdinand Ries (1784-1838; see Wikipedia) made use of the tune. He was originally from Bonn in Germany, had been a pupil of Beethoven and had already traveled through half of Europe. Since 1813 he lived in London and in 1815 he included this Finnish melody with variations in his Selection of Trifles for the Pianoforte (Op. 58, London, n. d., No. 4, pp. 12-3, at SBB Berlin [with wrong date]; see the review in the European Magazine 67, 1815, p. 436). In Germany it was published a year later (No. 4, in: Douze Bagatelles pour le Pianoforte, op. 58, Simrock, Bonn & Köln, n. d. [1816], pp. 14-5, at BStB). Strangely he called this piece "One of the oldest Norwegian Airs" (or "Vieux Air Norwegien" in the German edition). Ries had spent some in Sweden and surely knew the difference between Norway and Finland. But perhaps his source wasn't Acerbi's book and he had received the tune by personal communication together with the wrong information about its origin. 

But in the other hand: there was a kind of fad for Norwegian tunes at that time. Carl Maria von Weber had published one in 1812 (IX Variations sur un Air Norvégien, op. 22) as did Ludwig Berger (Air norvégien avec douze Variations pour le Piano-forte, op. 1812) and Friedrich Kuhlau (Variations sur un ancien air Norvégien, op. 15, c. 1815). I wonder if Ries helped himself a little bit by renaming this tune to jump on this particular band-wagon. His piece "became part of English middle-class piano repertory" (Saari 2009) and in fact this was the first Finnish melody that became more widely known outside of Finland. But unfortunately it remained incognito and was - thanks to Ferdinand Ries - taken for a Norwegian tune. 

IV. 

In the meantime Sweden had lost another war and also lost Finland which became part of the Russian empire in 1809. The same year German scholar Friedrich Rühs (1781-1820; see Wikipedia; see Schröder 2001), an expert for Scandinavia - he would later translate the Edda - published his Finnland und seine Bewohner. This was a very interesting work, a concise overview of the country's history and culture. He also discussed songs and poetry (pp. 323-42) but did not include any musical examples. 

10 years later Hans-Rudolf von Schröter (1798-1842) published his work Finnische Runen. Finnisch und Deutsch. Mit einer Musikbeilage (Uppsala, 1819, available at Google Books & HU, Berlin). This was the first collection of German translations of original Finnish "rune songs". A part of the pieces he used he had taken from the available literature, especially Porthan's De Poësi Fennica and Ganander's Mythologia Fennica. But in Uppsala he got the help of some Finnish students who supplied him with some more, up to then unpublished texts. He even included one complete song (Musikbeilage, at UB HU Berlin, text & translation pp. 82-5, at Google Books) that he called "Finnische Rune" ("En ole runun sukua"):

These students, among them Carl Axel Gottlund, Johan Josef Pippingsköld and Abraham Poppius - all would play later important roles in Finland's cultural life - showed great interest in their own "folk poetry". The first groundbreaking Swedish collection, Svenska Folk-Visor från Forntiden by Afzelius and Geijer, had just been published (3 Vols., Stockholm, 1814-16) and it also served as an inspiration for them: "I Uppsala var atmosfären alldeles särskilt laddad med folkvisor [...] Deras tankade kretsade kring den Finska folkdiktningen [...] Inom den pippingsköldska kretsen hörde runor till programmat för den kamratliga sammankonsterna" (see Andersson 1921, pp. 74-87; quotes pp. 74-5). Schröter surely learned this song from his Finnish friends. The words can be found in Gottlund's small anthology Pieniä Runoja Suomen Poijille Ratoxi (1818, No. I, at SKS Digikirjasto). The tune - a variant of the "Runa of the Finlanders" in Acerbi's book (1802, Vol. 2, p. 325) - may have been collected by Gottland or by Abraham Poppius. The latter taught Pippingsköld to sing and play these kind of songs (Andersson, p. 75). 

Back home in Turku, Pippingsköld (1792-1832), a jurist and hobby musician, founded a choir and its repertoire included some Finnish traditional songs like this one. He also set out to collect some more folk tunes but never managed to publish them. 21 tunes - all that could be found in his papers - were only printed a century later. But it is not clear where or when exactly he had noted these melodies. At least we can find here also the one used by Schröter which he already knew in Uppsala (see Andersson 1921, pp. 170-75, 263-4, tunes: pp. 265-72, "Finsk Runa", No. 9, p. 267; see also Laitinen 2003, pp. 118-9). 

Only more than a decade later the very first collection of Finnish songs was published: 
  • Carl Axel Gottlund, Suomalaisia Paimen-Sottoja Kantellele ja Sarvella Soitetteva, Stockholm, n. d. [1831?] (Supplement to Gottlund, Otawa eli Suomalaisia Huvituksia I, Stockholm, 1831, complete songtexts there on pp. 283-309, at the Internet Archive; booklet with tunes also available at SKS Digikirjasto

Gottlund (1796-1875; see Wikipedia), a multi-talented and somewhat controversial writer, scholar, editor, political and cultural activist, teacher and collector of Folklore, published his Otava eli Suomalaisia Huvituksia, a very interesting anthology of poetry and articles in Finnish, during the years 1828 to 1832. The collection of "shepherd-songs" was included in Otava as a supplement to an article about Finnish music instruments (pp. 267-282). There were only 13 tunes respectively songs, but with this little booklet a new era in the publication of Finnish tunes had begun. Up to that point all available music had been published by foreigners. Henceforth this task would be overtaken by Finnish collectors and editors. 

Outside of Finland there was at this time not a particularly great interest in Finnish tunes. In England Skjöldebrand's and Acerbi's publications with their musical examples were of course known and - as mentioned above - the latter's "Runa of the Finlanders" was reprinted a couple of times . Otherwise English publishers and editors remained rather reluctant even though foreign national airs were immensely popular and tunes of even the most exotic origin were easily available. But as far as I know not a single Finnish melody can be found in any these publications, for example in Edward Jones' tune collections, Thomas Moore's Popular National Airs or Thomas H. Bayly's Melodies of Various Nations, to name only a few. On the other hand a certain interest for the words of Finnish songs was there. In 1827 one John Bowring wrote an article "On the Runes of Finland" for the Westminster Review (available at SKS, Digikirjasto).

In Germany the situation was only slightly better. Some poets became interested in Finland. Goethe knew the original edition of Skjöldebrand's book and he translated the French text of the song of the peasant girl into German ("Finnisches Lied", 1810, see Hennig 1987, p. 288). Schröter's book surely stimulated the interest for Finnish culture. Ganander's Mythologia Fennica was even translated into German (Reval 1821, at the Internet Archive). But original Finnish traditional tunes remained scarce. In 1834 a new edition of Schröter's Finnische Runen became available and the following years O. L. B. Wolff included the text, tune and translation of "En ole runun sukua" in his Braga, the most comprehensive collection of international "Volkslieder" in Germany at that time (Vol. 14, pp. 10-11). Otherwise not one Finnish tune can be found in the other relevant publications from this time, like Zuccalmaglio's and Baumstark's Bardale (1829) and Friedrich Silcher's Ausländische Volksmelodien (1835-1841). 

Meanwhile in Finland a new era had started. The year 1831 saw the establishment of the Finnish Literature Society (Suomen Kirjallisuuden Seura, SKS) that became instrumental for the further development of the collection of and research into Folklore. Even more important was that Elias Lönnrot (1802-1884), folklorist and country doctor, began to step forward as the most important collector, editor and popularizer of Finnish "folk poetry". His first attempt - Kantele taikka Suomen Kansan, sekä Wanhoja että Nykysempiä Runoja ja Lauluja (available at SKS, Digikirjasto) - had been published in four parts between 1829 and 1831. In 1835 the first version of the Kalevala, the future Finnish national epic, came out: Kalewala taikka Wanhoja Karjalan Runoja Suomen Kansan muinosista ajoista (available at Hathi Trust & Doria.fi, see Branch 1998). Five years later his second major work, the Kanteletar. Suomen Kansan Wanhoja Laulujar ja Wirsiä - "the old Songs and Hymns of the Finnish People" - became available (at BStB, München). I can't discuss his collections of texts here. It should be noted that these pieces were of course originally sung. Lönnrot turned them into literature to read. 

But he was also an accomplished musician and could play the Kantele. Besides all these numerous texts he managed to collect some tunes (see Laitinen 2003, pp. 107-160). A small booklet of melodies - only 9 pages with 42 pieces - was added to the third volume of the Kanteletar
  • Elias Lönnrot, Suomen Laulujen ja Runojen Nuotteja, [Suimen Kirjallisuuden Seura, Helsinki, 1840] (available at SKS, Digikirjasto; the complete texts of the tunes Nos. 1-22 can be found in Kanteletaar 1, pp. ix-xli
This should remain Lönnrot's only musical publication. But during the next decades some more tune collections were published, most of them initiated and sponsored by the SKS: 
  • [Henrik August Reinholm (ed.) & Karl Collan (arr.)], Suomen Kansan Laulantoja. Pianolla Soitettavia, Suomem Kirjallisuuden Seura, Helsinki, 1849, available at SKS Digikirjasto; BStB, München, 4 Mus.pr. 480-1 [now also at the Internet Archive]; HU Berlin, Zr 54850
  • Valituita Suomalaisia Kansan-Lauluja, 4 Vols, Öhman [2-4: G. W. Edlund], Helsinki, 1854
    1: Pianon muka-soinolle sovittanut Karl Collan, 1854
    2: ko'onut Wilhelm Poppius, Pianon muka-soinolle ja moni-äänisiksi sovittanut Rudolf Lagi, 1855
    3: Pianon muka-soinolle ja moni-äänisiksi sovittanut Karl Collan, 1855
    4: ko'onut Joh. Filip von Schantz, Pianon muka-soinolle ja moni-äänisiksi sovittanut, 1855
    (available at SKS Digikirjasto; 2 sets made up of copies of the 2nd resp. 3rd ed. of this work are available at Sibley Music Library: http://hdl.handle.net/1802/14129; http://hdl.handle.net/1802/14153; the latter now also at the Internet Archive
  • F. V. Illberg, Suomalaisia Kansan-Lauluja ja Soitelmia. Finska Folkvisor och Melodier, F. W. Liewendal, n. d. [1867] (available at SKS Digikirjasto
  • Lauri Hämäläinen, Suomalaisia Kansanlauluja ja Tanssia, G. W. Edlund, Helsingfors, 1868 (not yet digitized; see Happanen, p. 231; catalog KBK
Henrik August Reinholm (1819-1883; see Wikipedia), a clergyman interested in ethnography, went on a field-trip in 1847 - together with David Europaeus (1820-1884), another notable collector and scholar - and managed to note some tunes. 20 songs including the melodies can be found in his little booklet published by the SKS. The arrangements - for piano and vocals - were written by Karl Collan (1828-1871; see Hillila 1997, pp. 46-7; Wikipedia), a young man who would later become known as a composer of songs. But he also made himself a name as scholar, editor, librarian and translator. His dissertation was about Serbian Folk ballads (1860) and he translated the Kalevala into Swedish (1864-1868, at the Internet Archive). 

In 1854 Collan as well as two other young students - Wilhelm Poppius and Filip von Schantz (1835-1865; see Hillila 1997, pp. 365-6) - set out to collect more songs and tunes. This field-trip was also sponsored by the SKS. Their four booklets with "selected Finnish national songs" arranged for vocals and piano or for choirs seem to have been quite successful. A third edition appeared in the 70s. Interestingly we can find here a version of "Ah! mun rakas lintuisen" (Vol. 2, p. 10), the tune of which had been first published by the Abbé Vogler in 1798. This means that this particular song was still in use at that time. 


During the 60s both Frederik Wilhelm Illberg (1836-1904), a singing teacher, and young composer Lauri Hämäläinen (1832-1888; see Wikipedia) also collected tunes and expanded the repertoire with their publications. At this point a reasonable amount of traditional melodies had become available, but it was still much less than what many other countries had to offer. It is also interesting to have a look at a representative collection of Finnish songs published at that time:
  • Det Sjungande Finland. 50 Inhemska Sånger vid Pianoforte, 3 Vols., K. E. Holm, Helsingfors, 1869-76 (available at Doria.fi: Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3; also at the Internet Archive
Here we can find not only works by popular composers like Karl Collan and Frederik Pacius but also some traditional songs, all apparently taken from the aforementioned publications. The first volume includes for example "Ah! mun rakas lintuisen" (No. 41, p. 60), "Suomen salossa" (No. 44, p. 64) and the famous "Minun kultani kaunis on" ("Kultaselle", No. 9, p. 12), the latter one of the most popular Finnish Folk songs.


Outside of Finland the interest for Finnish folk poetry had grown considerably since the publication of Lönnrot's Kalevala . For example in 1845 German scholar Jacob Grimm held a lecture Über das finnische Epos (publ. in: in: Zeitschrift für die Wissenschaft der Sprache 1, 1846, pp. 13-55). A German translation of the second edition of Kalavala (1849) by Anton Schiefner was published in 1852 (both bound together, at the Internet Archive). Another book with the title Runen finnischer Volkspoesie by Julius Altmann appeared in 1856 (available at the Internet Archive). But original music from Finland still played a minor role even though foreign "national airs" were highly popular in Germany. A look into Hofmeisters Monatsberichte shows that only very few Finnish tunes found its way to German music fans. 

In 1844 composer Carl Schwencke published one tune in an arrangement for piano, but including the original text: Rondoletto, dans lequel est introduit un Air Finois, pour Piano á 4 Mains (see Musikalische-kritisches Repertorium 1, 1844, p. 181; DonMusDr 4421, BLB Karlsruhe, not yet digitized). Text and tune were taken from Lönnrot's Kanteletaar ("Minun kultani kaukana kukku aina Sajmen ranala", in: Vol. 1, No. 7, pp. xx-xxi, tunebook, No. 7, p. 2). Schwencke spent some time in Finland that year (see Benrath 1902, pp. 158-60) and one may assume that he became familiar with this song when he was there. 

In 1851 composer and scholar Carl Friedrich Weitzmann (1808-1880; see Wikipedia) wrote a very interesting three-part paper about Finnish songs for the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik
  • Volksmelodien, II. Finnen, in: NZM 34, 1851, No. 20, pp. 205-209, No. 21, pp. 217-222; No. 22, pp. 229-233; Beilage: Melodien aus Finnland; at the Internet Archive). 
Weitzmann had worked for some years in Riga, Reval and St. Petersburg. He had given concerts in Finland and even in Lapland and also was some kind of expert for more exotic music traditions. Some years later he published a little book about Greek music (Geschichte der griechischen Musik, Berlin, 1855, at BStB, München & Google Books). His article is mostly about the so-called rune-songs but he also discussed other genres. The supplement with tunes from Finland is particularly worthwhile and shows that Weitzmann was familiar with most of the relevant publications so far. Here we find pieces for example from Acerbi's and Schröter's books and even from Gottlund's rather rare collection. 

The 1860s then saw the publication of two works that helped spread some more knowledge of Finnish songs, one in England and the other in Denmark. Carl Engel in his important and influential Introduction to the Study of National Music (London, 1866, at the Internet Archive) discussed Finnish songs, especially the "rune tunes" in 5/4, and also the musical instruments. He knew some of the important literature: Clarke, Acerbi, Schröter, Reinholm's collection as well as Weitzmann's article (see pp. 59, 86-8, 243, 292, 359, 387-8). 

A. P. Berggreen (1801-1880), Danish composer, editor, writer and scholar, was since the 40s busy with his Folke-Sange og Melodier, Fædrelandske og Fremmede, a multi-volume collection of international "national airs" ("Volkslieder") with Danish translation. From the start this happened to be an excellent publication. Unlike many others he did not forget to mention his sources and he also was able to add interesting and helpful notes. The first edition - published between 1842 and 1847 (partly available at Hathi Trust) - did not include a single Finnish song. Neither did a reprint with additions from 1855 (at Google Books). This is a little bit surprising, especially for a Scandinavian scholar. 

Only in the 60s he began to make himself familiar with what was available at that time and in 1868 he published a collection of songs from Finland: Finske Folke-sange og Melodier udsatte for Pianoforte. Suomalaisia Kansan-lauluja ja Soitelmia ko’onnut ja pianolle sovittanut (title-list on catalog KK, Helsinki). But apparently these 56 songs were not enough for complete volume of his series and the following year he combined them with Lithuanian, Ungarian, Greek and Turkish songs for the 9th book of the new edition: 
  • A. P. Berggreen, Litauiske, Finske, Ungarske og Nygræske Folke-Sange og Melodier, Samt Nogle Fra Tyrkiet og Forhenværende Provindser, Samlade og Udsatte for Pianoforte (= Folke-Sange og Melodier, Fædrelandske og Fremmede 9, Anden Utgave), C. A. Reitzel, Köbenhavn, 1869 (Finnish songs on pp. 23-82, notes pp. 202-5; available at the Internet Archive) 

Berggreen, one of the most knowledgeable scholars of this genre, offered a good selection of songs from the earlier Finnish publications like Lönnrot's, Reinholm's, Collan's and Illberg's. In some cases he combined tunes with different texts from the Kalevala and the Kanteletaar. All in all this was at that time the most comprehensive and entertaining collection of "kansanlauluja" from Finland. In fact was even better and more informative than all the original Finnish collections, not at least because of Berggreen's helpful notes - in Danish of course but nonetheless worth reading. 

From this point on Finnish songs occasionally appeared in anthologies of "Volkslieder" in Germany. Wilhelm Meyer included three songs - all taken either from Berggreen or from Det sjungande Finland - with German translations in his excellent Volks-Liederbuch. Auserlesene ältere und neuere Volkslieder und Nationalgesänge des In- und Auslandes mit ihren eigenthümlichen Sangweisen (Hannover, 1873, No. 34, p. 34; Nos. 44-5, pp. 45-6). Two of these three pieces can also be found in O. H. Lange's Ausländischer Liederschatz (Leipzig, n. d. [1886], Nos. 66-7, pp. 79-80).

Hans Reimann used some more - all in all 10 pieces - in his Internationales Volksliederbuch. Eine Sammlung ausländischer Volkslieder (Berlin, n. d. [1894], I, pp. 65-8; II, pp. 58-63; III, pp. 48-54). But these were exceptions. For reasons I don't understand editors of songbooks in Germany rarely cared about "Volkslieder" from Finland. In Britain it was not much different. There is one lone Finnish piece in James Duff Brown's and Alfred Moffat's Characteristic Songs and Dances of all Nations (London, 1901, p. 147), "Finland's Forest", which is a translation of "Suomen salossa". 

Meanwhile in Finland more collections were published: 
  • Suomalaisia Kansan-Lauluja. Koonut A. A. Borenius. Pianon myotäilykselle sovittanut G. Linsén, K. E. Holm, Helsinki, 1880 (available at SKS Digikirjasto
  • Sydän-Soumesta. 18 Kansanlauluja kesällä 1890 kokosivat Ilmari Krohn ja Mikko Nyberg sekä-Köorille sovitti Ilmari Krohn, 2 Vols., Porvoo, 1891-2 (available at SKS Digikirjasto
  • Johan Victor Tenkanen, Sävelsointuja. Uusia Suomalaisia Kansanlauluja y. m. Koonnut, Kvartetille ja sekä-ääniselle köörille Sovittanut, Mikkeli, 1898 (available at SKS Digikirjasto)
Most interesting here is the very first work by Ilmari Krohn (1867-1960) who would become the most important scholar, collector and editor of Finnish traditional music and songs. At that time Finnish folkloristics happened to be some kind of family business. His father Julius Krohn was an influential scholar in this field and his brother Kaarle Krohn became even more important. Everyone who ever studied folk narrative research knows their names and their work. Ilmari Krohn decided for musicology and took care of musical side of Finnish folk culture. Among his works were a groundbreaking dissertation about religious folk tunes, Über Art und Entstehung der geistlichen Volksmelodien in Finnland (in: Suomalais-Ugrilaisen Aikakauskirja 16, Helsinki, 1899, pp. 1-98) and an influential article about the classification of traditional melodies (in: Sammelbände der Internationalen Musik-Gesellschaft 4, 1902-1903, pp. 634-645). 

Together with his colleagues Armas Launis - author of another standard work: Über Art, Entstehung und Verbreitung der Estnisch-Finnischen Runenmelodien, Helsinki, 1910 (available at the Internet Archive) - and A. O. Väisänen he edited Suomen Kansan Sävelmiä [Tunes of the Finnish People], published in five massive volumes between 1893 and 1933, with around 9000 pieces (see f. ex. Vol. 2, 1904, available at the Internet Archive; see Suomem Kansan eSävelmät, About the Digital Archive of Finnish Folk Tunes). 

But this is another story I can't discuss here (see Haapanen 1939, pp. 232-6, a short overview). Nonetheless it should be noted that in 1917 Väisanen reported that up to that year more than 15000 tunes had been collected (dto. p. 231). This is an impressive number and it shows that the interest in these tunes had been steadily growing since the earliest attempts at collecting a century ago. But the focus has always been on the texts and they were collected in much greater numbers. The quasi-official edition of Finnish Kalevala-meter poetry - Suomen Kansat Vanhat Runot - was published between 1908 and 1948 in 33 volumes (see some early vols. at the Internet Archive). And outside of Finland Lönnrot's Kalevala left a much greater and much more lasting impression than the musical tradition or any particular song, at least during the 19th century. 

Literature:
  • Joseph [i. e. Giuseppe] Acerbi, Travels Through Sweden, Finland, Lapland, to the North Cape, in The Years 1798 and 1799, 2 Vols., J. Mawman, London, 1802 (available at the Internet Archive: Vol. 1, Vol. 2)
  • Joseph [i. e. Giuseppe] Acerbi, Reise durch Schweden und Finnland, bis an die äußersten Gränzen von Lappland, in den Jahren 1798 und 1799. Aus dem Englischen übersetzt von Ch. Weyland. Nebst berichtigenden Bemerkungen eines sachkundigen Gelehrten. Mit zwei Kupfern und einer Landkarte, Voss, Berlin, 1803 (available at BStB, München
  • Otto Andersson, Johan Josef Pippingsköld och Musiklivet i Abo 1808-1827, Helsingfors, 1921 (available at the Internet Archive
  • Anneli Asplund, The Oldest Finnish Broadside Ballads and Their Influence on Oral Tradition, in: Pentti Leino (ed.), Finnish Folkloristics II, Helsinki, 1975 (= Studia Fennica 18), pp. 116-138 
  • H. Benrath (ed.), Carl Schwencke, Erinnerungen, Hamburg, 1901 (available at the Internet Archive
  • Michael Branch, Finnish Oral Poetry, Kalevala, and Kanteletar, in: George C. Schoolfield (ed.), A History of Finlands Literature, Lincoln, 1998, pp. 4-33 
  • Hans-Hermann Bartens, Der Joik und die Musik der Lappen im Urteil älterer Quellen, vornehmlich Reiseberichten, in: Evgenji A. Chelimskij, Wŭśa wŭśa - sei gegrüßt! Beiträge zur Finnougristik zu Ehren von Gert Sauer dargebracht zu seinem siebzigsten Geburtstag, Wiebaden, 2002, pp. 1-64 
  • Edward Daniel Clarke, Travels in Various Countries of Europe, Asia, and Africa, Part the Third, T. Cadell & W. Davies, London, 1819 (available at Doria.fi & the Internet Archive
  • William Crotch, Specimens of Various Styles of Music referred to in A Course of Lectures, read at Oxford & London and Adapted to keyed Instruments, Vol. 1, London, n. d. [1808] (available at the Internet Archive
  • Denkmäler Deutscher Tonkunst. Zweite Folge. Denkmäler der Tonkunst in Bayern 16. Mannheimer Kammermusik des 18. Jahrhunderts, 2. Teil, eingel. und hg. v. Hugo Riemann, Leipzig 1915 (at BStB-DS
  • Carl Engel, An Introduction to the Study of National Music Combining Researches into Popular Songs, Traditions, and Customs, London, 1866 (available at the Internet Archive
  • T. I. Haapalainen, Die Choralhandschrift von Kangasala aus dem Jahre 1624. Die Melodien und ihre Herkunft, Åbo, 1976 (Acta Academia Aboensis. Ser. A: Humaniora 53) 
  • Toivo Happanen, Die musikwissenschaftliche Forschung in Finnland, in: Archiv für Musikforschung 4, 1939, pp. 230-243 (available at the Internet Archive
  • Jouko Hautala, Finnish Folklore Research 1828-1918, Helsinki, 1968 (The History of Learning and Science in Finland 1828-1918) 
  • John Hennig, Goethes Schwedenlektüre, in: ibid., Goethes Europakunde. Goethes Kenntnisse des nichtdeutschsprachigen Europas. Ausgewählte Aufsätze, Amsterdam, 1987, pp. 275-291 (first publ. in Zeitschrift für Religions-und Geistesgeschichte 28, 1976, pp. 324-340) 
  • Ruth-Esther Hillila & Barbara Blanchard Hong, Historical Dictionary of the Music and Musicians of Finland, Westport & London, 1997 
  • Kai Laitinen, Literature of Finland. An Outline, Helsinki, 1985 
  • Kai Laitinen & George C. Schoolfield, New Beginnings, Latin and Finnish, in: George C. Schoolfield (ed.), A History of Finlands Literature, Lincoln, 1998, pp. 34-62 
  • Heikki Laitinen, Matkoja musiikiin 1800-luvun Suomessa, Hum. Diss., Tampereen Yliopisto, Tampere, 2003 (Acta Universitatis Tamperensis 943) (at Tampereen Yliopisto, Julkaisoarkisto
  • Ernest J. Moyne, Raising The Wind. The Legend of Lapland and Finland Wizards in Literature, Edited by Wayne T. Kime, Newark, 1981 
  • Pirjo-Liisa Niinimäki, Saa Veisata Omalla Pulskalla Nuottillansa. Riimillisen laulun varhaisvauhet suomalaisissa arkkiveusuissa 1643-1809, Hum. Diss., Tampereen Yliopisto, 2007 (Suomen Etnomusikologisen Seuran Julkaisuja 14) (available at Tampereen Yliopisto, Julkaisuarkisto
  • Friedrich Rühs, Finnland und seine Bewohner, Göschen, Leipzig, 1809 (available at the Internet Archive)
  • Annamari Sarajas, Suomen Kansanrunouden Tuntemus 1500 - 1700-lukujen kirjallisuudessa, Helsinki, 1956
  • Henrik Schück (ed.), Excellensen Grefve A. F. Skjöldebrands Memoarer. Andra Delen, Stockholm, 1903 (available at the Internet Archive
  • Karl Emil von Schafhäutl, Abt Georg Joseph Vogler. Sein Leben, Charakter und musikalisches System. Seine Werke, seine Schule, Bildnisse &c., Augsburg, 1888 (also as a reprint: Hildesheim & New York, 1979) 
  • Stephan Michael Schröder, 1809 aus deutscher Perspektive: Rühs' Finnland und seine Bewohner, in: Jan Hecker-Stampehl et al. (eds.), 1809 und die Folgen. Finnland zwischen Schweden, Russland und Deutschland, Berlin, 2001, pp. 229-248 
  • Hans Rudolf von Schröter, Finnische Runen. Finnisch und Deutsch. Mit einer Musikbeilage, Palmblad, Uppsala, 1819 (available at Google Books [musical supplement not scanned correctly] & HU, Berlin; a new edition was published by Cotta in Germany 1834, available at Google Books
  • A. F. Skjöldebrand, Voyage Pittoresque au Cap Nord, Cahier 1-4, Charles Deleen & J. G. Forsgren, Stockholm, 1801 & 1802 (available at Doria.fi
  • A. F. Skjöldebrand's Beschreibung der Wasserfälle und des Kanals von Trollhätta in Schweden und Reise nach dem Nordkap im Jahre 1799. Aus dem Französischen. Herausgegeben von T. F. Ehrmann, Weimar, 1805 (available at the Internet Archive
  • A. F. Skjöldebrand, Picturesque Journey to the North Cape. Translated from the French, London, 1813 (available at the Internet Archive
  • Seppo Saari, Sleep On, Sweet Bird: Strange Travels of an Ancient Finnish Folk Tune, in: College Music Symposium 49, 2009  
  • Suomen Kansan eSävelmät - Digital Archive of Finnish Folk Tunes (University of Jyväskäla & SKS) 
  • Twå Berättelser om Lapparnes Omwändelse Ifrån Deras fordna Widskeppelser, och Afguderi, Stockholm, 1773 (available at the Internet Archive
  • Joachim Veit, Der junge Carl Maria von Weber. Untersuchungen zum Einfluß Franz Danzis und Abbé Georg Joseph Voglers, Mainz 1990 (online at Universität Paderborn, Digitale Sammlungen, urn:nbn:de:hbz:466:2-6908
  • Patrick Vretblad, Abbé Vogler som Programmusiker, in: Svensk Tidskrift for Musikforskning 9, 1927, pp. 79-98 
  • O. L. B. Wolff, Braga. Sammlung Österreichischer, Schweizerischer, Französischer, Englischer, Spanischer, Portugiesischer, Brasilianischer, Italienischer, Holländischer, Schwedischer, Dänischer, Russischer, Polnischer, Litthauischer, Finnischer, u. s. w. Volkslieder mit ihren ursprünglichen Melodien mit Klavierbegleitung u. unterlegter deutscher Uebersetzung, 14 Hefte, N. Simrock, Berlin/Bonn, n. d. [1835] (available at Google Books)